The Contours of Citizenship Rights
The previous chapter examined the sources and construction of the diverse measures and indicators that operationalize citizenship rights and social movements in this study. This chapter describes the trends and properties of the measures and indicators of citizenship rights. The next chapter will do the same for social movement activity. This chapter presents a succession of tables and figures which trace the evolution of citizenship rights over time. In this way, the different rights measures show the changes in rights provision both within and across cases. These measures comprise the rights-in-principle indicators (BANKSLII and the IPI), the rights-in-practice indicators (Gastil, FJII, DUFFMC, Arat, Humana, and the CRI), and the GAP indicator for the four cases over time. The three principal measures are presented for the four cases in the alphabetical order of Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Spain. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the broad patterns of similarity and difference across the cases. These patterns will prove important to the subsequent analysis.
As outlined in the previous chapter, a longitudinal index of rights- in-principle was constructed from the data in the Cross-Polity Time Series Data Archive ( Banks 1994), which represents pure institutional variation. BANKSLII covers the forty years from 1950 to 1990 and so amply accommodates the periods under study in all four cases. In this way, BANKSLII provides broad measures of rights-in-principle during and beyond the relevant periods of the enquiry. Since there are deficiencies and omissions in the aggregate data provided by Banks ( 1994), the IPI presents an index of pure institutional variation that is more sensitive to the procedural and legal changes that may affect citizenship rights. The three components of the index (core rights, contestation rights, and