FOR material and/or spiritual assistance in the writing of this book I am very grateful to: the British Academy; the Warden and Fellows of New College, Oxford; the Heath Harrison Committee of the University of Oxford, for enabling me to spend an invaluable year in Bonn during the early part of my researches; Professor Peter Pütz, for being so willing to help and advise me while I was there; the Principal and Fellows of Jesus College, Oxford, for electing me to a Junior Research Fellowship in 1990, without which this project could not have been completed; Viglen Ltd.; Raymond Lucas, Frank Lamport, and Andrea McTigue, for their helpful comments on various parts of the 'work-in-progress'; and Matthew Bell, for his extensive and constructive comments on the first draft. I must also thank the staff of the Taylor Institution Library in Oxford, in particular Jill Hughes, and the staff of the Deutsches Literaturarchiv in Marbach am Neckar, where the final revisions were undertaken with the aid of a Theodor Heuss Research Fellowship from the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung. A revised version of Chapter 2 appeared in the October 1995 number of German Life and Letters.
This study is based on my Oxford D.Phil. thesis, and I should like to thank my examiners, David Constantine and Martin Swales, for their invaluable advice and suggestions which I have tried to incorporate as far as possible in this revised version. I must also acknowledge longer-standing debts to my former tutors: John Cowan, for his unfailing support; Patrick Gardiner, for stimulating and encouraging my interest in aesthetics; and Jonathan Glover, for his wisdom.
My greatest debt, however, is to Jim Reed, my supervisor, who advised, cajoled, and above all encouraged me through the initial phase, the pursuit, and the completion of this untimely project. I am grateful to him for his enthusiastic support and for supplying some much-needed Apollinian order to the somewhat chaotic development of my research. My views and his did not always coincide, of course, but our