The truly apocalyptic view of the world is that things do not repeat themselves.
-- Ludwig Wittgenstein
Tolstoy uses repetition to penetrate the complexities of subjective human experience. He also uses it to demonstrate just how inextricably joined to the lives of others each individual life can be. Thus, repetition plays a critical role not only in the structure of characters' experience, but in the structure of their interrelationships as well. Sometimes the repeated element sheds light on the dynamics--the motive and controlling forces--of a group of individuals and sometimes it becomes a means for exploring the relationship between just two or three characters. In both cases repetition serves to define and illuminate particular themes or ideas in the book. By repeating the same thematic phrase in a number of contexts, Tolstoy depicts differing perspectives on the same question or issue, and reminds readers that understanding begins with a discriminating awareness of the diversity of viewpoints. Like those repetitions that structure characters' experience, these repetitions also depend on a dynamics of parts and wholes. Repetition is a tool of both analysis and synthesis: it can be used to resolve a whole into its constituent parts or to create a whole from separate parts. And here, too, repetition functions pragmatically in terms of readers' experience; aesthetically in terms of qualities