This book owes its existence to the help of many people, and it is my pleasure to acknowledge the debt. Above all, Reginald E. Zelnik has rendered invaluable aid as friend, critic, and counselor as well as my dissertation supervisor and the most careful reader of the last version of the manuscript. His comments have always been distinguished by their temperate, balanced tone and by the unique insight into my work that his own mastery of Russian labor and urban social history has given him. Reggie's unstinting generosity in all of these capacities is well known by his students and colleagues, and I have been fortunate to count myself among them. Laura Engelstein has also read the manuscript at various stages, and I have greatly benefited from her incisive observations and judicious advice. Leopold H. Haimson and the participants in his seminar on Russian labor history at the Harriman Institute, Columbia University, made it possible for me to compare my work with that of some of the leading contributors to the field, and Leo himself has offered encouragement, advice, and support at every turn.
Several others should be singled out from a much longer list of those who eased and facilitated my work. (As with those just mentioned, none of them bears any responsibility for the book's ideas or conclusions, for which I alone am accountable.) In the Soviet Union scholarly counsel and encouragement were generously offered me by Boris V. Anan'ich, Valerii I. Bovykin, Rafail Sh. Ganelin, and Ura A. Shuster of the Institute of History of the USSR Academy of Sciences. My work in the magnificent research facilities of the USSR was aided immeasurably by the administration and staff of the three archives and three principal libraries I used: the Central State Archive of the