The World Upside Down: Cross-Cultural Contact and Conflict in Sixteenth-Century Peru

By Susan Elizabeth Ramírez | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 4
The Evolving Tribute System in Northern Peru

In olden times 1,000 served 100 Spaniards and now 100 Indians are to serve 1,000 Spaniards. -- AGI/AL 316, 1584, 176

Most of the adventurers and others who traveled to Spanish America in the sixteenth century expected to better themselves in a material way. The promise of great economic rewards spurred men to risk life and limb in the European invasion, exploration, and settlement of the New World. Lockhart detailed for students the fulfillment of peninsular dreams when he provided an accounting of the gold and silver ransom Francisco Pizarro apportioned to those who accompanied him to Cajamarca. After the gold and silver of Atahualpa's ransom was melted down, assayed, and distributed, the Spanish almost immediately began to purchase land, buildings, and other investments in the homeland. Thereafter, those who remained in America faced the problem of transforming the wealth of Peru into salable products that promised them at least subsistence and possibly great profits and riches. Building on the labor obligations of commoners to their lords of the precontact indigenous tradition, the encomienda became the institutional vehicle after 1532 for mobilizing an indigenous labor force and translating it into commodities for an expanding European market.1

For favored individuals, the right to control labor and exact tribute through the encomienda made them the masters of Peru. But the phase of encomendero omnipotence did not last long. As early as 1536, the state began to rethink the relationship between Spanish encomenderos and indigenous peoples. In Peru, the encomenderos proved so powerful that they challenged and temporarily thwarted the state's efforts in the 1540s to regulate this intercourse. The re-

-87-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The World Upside Down: Cross-Cultural Contact and Conflict in Sixteenth-Century Peru
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 240

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.