Implicit Memory and Metacognition

By Lynne M. Reder | Go to book overview

sometimes people may attribute reasons for actions (strategy choices) that are plausible reasons that have no basis in fact. That is, people are frequently conscious of the strategy (behavior) selected, and from those observations inferences are made about why the strategy was selected. Nisbett and Wilson ( 1977) have made a strong case that our verbal reports for why we behave the way we do are not always accurate.

Earlier we described cases in which explicit awareness had negative impact on performance. However, awareness need not always influence performance negatively; it could also simply have no effect. For example, in Experiment 2 of Schunn et al. (in press), subjects were asked during the debriefing whether they were aware of the operator-swap manipulation. We hypothesized that if awareness had helped performance, then the aware subjects would have been less likely to be fooled by the operator-swap manipulation (like Jacoby and Whitehouse's subjects); if awareness had hurt, then the aware subject would have been more likely to be fooled by the operator-swap manipulation. However, awareness of this manipulation had no influence on the subjects' tendency to be fooled (i.e., select retrieve and then give the answer to the original problem), F(1, 21) ≪ 1. In this case, awareness neither helped nor hurt the subjects.


CONCLUSIONS

We conclude this chapter as we began, namely with the bold conjecture that much of the processing that is called metacognitive typically operates at an implicit level; that is, without conscious awareness. Many of the tasks that are called monitoring are also operating without conscious awareness -- people cannot veridically report what they have perceived and acted on. Furthermore, when people make efforts to change the nature of the task so that they are conscious and can report what they are doing, they run the risk of fundamentally changing their performance in non-optimal ways.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Preparation of this chapter was supported by a grant from the Office of Naval Research N00014-95-1-0223 to the first author. The authors wish to thank P. Stroffolino for development of the original SAC simulations and D. Richards for conducting the original fits of the simulation to the empirical data.


REFERENCES

Anderson J. R. ( 1974). "Retrieval of propositional information from long-term memory". Cognitive Psychology, 6, 451-474.

-73-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Implicit Memory and Metacognition
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 362

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.