Implicit Memory and Metacognition

By Lynne M. Reder | Go to book overview

holding of answers and the person's metacognitive belief about whether the items had/had not been studied will become nearly perfect when the person's metacognitive confidence in that belief increases toward subjective certainty. We suggest that the aforementioned metacognitive components (or their equivalents) are necessary to account for those findings. It appears to us that performance in an implicit/explicit memory task is analogous to what chemists conceptualize as a compound (as opposed to a mixture). If this is so, there may be strong bonds between metacognitive and memory aspects of performance that would be of interest both to metacognitive and implicit/explicit memory researchers. We consider our analysis to be a first step in this direction.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This research was supported by NIMH grant RO1-MH32205, a career development award (K05-MH1075) from the NIMH, and an Alexander von Humboldt senior scientist award to the third author. Portions of the research were conducted while the third author was at the University of Washington. Send correspondence to Thomas O. Nelson, Psychology Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-4411.


REFERENCES

Anderson R. C., & Pichert J. W. ( 1978). "Recall of previous unrecallable information following a shift in perspective". Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior?; 17, 1-12

Barnes A. E., Nelson T. O., Dunlosky J., Mazzoni G., & Narens L. ( 1995). An integrative system of metamemory components involved in retrieval. Unpublished manuscript.

Bower G. H., & Mann T. ( 1992). "Improving recall by recoding interfering material at the time of retrieval". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning; Memory, and Cognition, 18, 1310- 1320.

Dulany D. E. ( 1994). Consciousness in the explicit (deliberative) and implicit (evocative). Unpublished manuscript.

Dunlosky J., & Nelson T. O. ( 1992). "Importance of the kind of cue for judgments of learning (JOL) and the delayed-JOL effect". Memory & Cognition, 20, 374-380.

Flavell J. H. ( 1979). "Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry". American Psychologist, 34, 906-911.

Gardiner J. M., Craik F. I. M., & Birtwhistle J. ( 1972). "Retrieval cues from proactive inhibition". Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 778-783.

Jacoby L. L., & Hollingshead A. ( 1990). "Toward a generate recognize model of performance on direct and indirect tests of memory". Journal of Memory and Language, 29, 433-454.

Jameson K. A., Narens L., Goldfarb K., & Nelson T. O. ( 1990). "The influence of subthreshold priming on metamemory and recall". Acta Psychologica, 73, 55-68.

Nelson T. O. ( 1984). "A comparison of current measures of feeling-of-knowing accuracy", Psychological Bulletin, 95, 109-133.

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