Implicit Memory and Metacognition

By Lynne M. Reder | Go to book overview

The goal of the current chapter has been to outline one such bias. It has been argued that such an undertaking has not only theoretical, but also practical value.

It might be argued that the education of metamemory is, by definition, more important than the improvement of memorial processes per se. Memory has evolved to be a highly adaptive, but fallible organ of human cognition (cf. Bjork, 1989). Metamemory, which has been considered as a sort of "system manager" for the incredible complexity of memory, serves in one sense the paramount role in cognition -- as a determiner of when and how to use memory. Such a metaphor, although smacking of the problem of homunculi-driven cognition and the infinite regress problem, does emphasize an important point: Assessment of how and what we know drives what we believe we can and cannot do and, furthermore, what we do and do not continue to try to learn. Perhaps, then, one underrepresented key to enhancing human performance and learning is to redirect our focus from how to improve the system to how to use the system we have with maximal efficiency.


REFERENCES

Anderson J. R. ( 1974). "Retrieval of propositional information from long-term memory". Cognitive Psychology, 6, 451-474.

Anderson M. C., Bjork R. A., & Bjork E. L. ( 1994). "Remembering can cause forgetting: Retrieval dynamics in long-term memory". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 1063-1087.

Baddeley A. ( 1990). Human memory: Theory and practice. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Benjamin A. S., Bjork R. A., & Schwarz B. L. ( 1996). The mismeasure of memory: When retrieval fluency is misleading. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Bjork R. A. ( 1970, September). Control processes and serial position effects in free recall. Symposium on Memory, Mathematical Psychology Meetings, Miami Beach, FL.

Bjork R. A. ( 1975). "Retrieval as a memory modifier". In R. Solso (Ed.), Information processing and cognition: The Loyola Symposium (pp. 123-144). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bjork R. A. ( 1989). "Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory". In H. L. Roediger & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Varieties of memory and consciousness: Essays in honor of Endel Tulving (pp. 309-330). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bjork R. A., & Bjork E. L. ( 1992). "A new theory of disuse and an old theory of stimulus fluctuation". In A. S. Kosslyn Healy, & R. Shiffrin (Eds.), From learning processes to cognitive processes: Essays in honor of William K. Estes(Vol. 2, pp. 35-67). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Blake M. ( 1973). "Prediction of recall when recognition fails: Exploring the feeling-of-knowing phenomenon". Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 311-319.

Brown J. ( 1968). "Reciprocal facilitation and impairment in free recall". Psychonomic Science, 10, 41-42.

Christina R. W., & Bjork R. A. ( 1991). "Optimizing long-term retention and transfer". In D. Druckman & R. A. Bjork (Eds.), In the minds eye: Enhancing human performance (pp. 23-56). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

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