# War and Peace

By Leo Tolstoy; Henry Gifford et al. | Go to book overview

PART THREE

1

ABSOLUTE continuity of motion is not comprehensible to the human mind. Laws of motion of any kind only become comprehensible to man when he examines arbitrarily selected elements of that motion; but at the same time, a large proportion of human error comes from the arbitrary division of continuous motion into discontinuous elements. There is a well-known so-called sophism of the ancients consisting in this, that Achilles could never catch up with a tortoise he was following, in spite of the fact that he travelled ten times as fast as the tortoise. By the time Achilles has covered the distance that separated him from the tortoise, the tortoise has covered one-tenth of that distance ahead of him: when Achilles has covered that tenth, the tortoise has covered another one-hundredth, and so on for ever. This problem seemed to the ancients insoluble. The absurd answer (that Achilles could never overtake the tortoise) resulted from this: that motion was arbitrarily divided into discontinuous elements, whereas the motion both of Achilles and of the tortoise was continuous.

By adopting smaller and smaller elements of motion we only approach a solution of the problem, but never reach it. Only when we have admitted the conception of the infinitely small, and the resulting geometrical progression with a common ratio of one- tenth, and have found the sum of this progression to infinity, do we reach a solution of the problem.

A modern branch of mathematics, having achieved the art of dealing with the infinitely small, can now yield solutions in other more complex problems of motion, which used to appear insoluble.

This modern branch of mathematics, unknown to the ancients, when dealing with problems of motion, admits the conception of the infinitely small, and so conforms to the chief condition of motion (absolute continuity) and thereby corrects the inevitable error which the human mind cannot avoid when dealing with separate elements of motion instead of examining continuous motion.

In seeking the laws of historical movement just the same thing happens. The movement of humanity, arising as it does from innumerable arbitrary human wills, is continuous.

-879-

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War and Peace

• Title Page iii
• Contents v
• Introduction vii
• NOTE ON THE TRANSLATION xvii
• SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY xviii
• CHRONOLOGY OF LEO TOLSTOY xix
• PRINCIPAL CHARACTERS AND GUIDE TO PRONUNCIATION xxi
• DATES OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS xxiii
• CHAPTER CONTENTS xxix
• BOOK ONE 1
• Part One 3
• Part Two 113
• Part Three 209
• BOOK TWO 309
• Part One 311
• Part Two 367
• Part Three 443
• Part Four 519
• Part Five 571
• BOOK THREE 643
• Part One 645
• Part Two 731
• Part Three 879
• BOOK FOUR 997
• Part One 999
• Part Two 1055
• Part Three 1101
• Part Four 1149
• FIRST EPILOGUE 1207
• SECOND EPILOGUE 1265
• APPENDIX SOME WORDS ABOUT 'WAR AND PEACE' (Published in Russian Archive, 1868) 1307
• NOTES [M] indicates that the note is the translator's. 1317
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