Area Handbook for Finland

By Theodore L. Stoddard; William K. Carr et al. | Go to book overview

SECTION III. ECONOMIC

CHAPTER 12
CHARACTER AND STRUCTURE OF THE ECONOMY

The ravages of World War II wreaked heavy destruction upon the Finnish economy. The rapid recovery of activity in the early postwar years represented enormous effort and sacrifice. Twelve percent of the national territory and productive capacity was ceded to the Soviet Union along with the equivalent of US$570 million (at 1952 prices) in war reparations paid out over an eight-year span, 1944 to 1952. Consumption had to be restricted to allow for higher rates of savings and investment. Despite these difficulties, by 1948 per capita output had regained its 1938 level.

In the twenty-year period after 1948 total output expanded at a rate of 5 percent annually. Exports increased at an annual average rate of 8 percent. Productivity rose 4 percent per year. This general performance was roughly in line with the trend for all Western European countries combined, according to the figures of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Gross fixed asset formation (total investment) remained at about one-quarter of the gross national product (GNP -- see Glossary) throughout the 1960s and early 1970s.

The agriculture and mining sector's share of output and employment contracted sharply after 1948. The other sectors of the economy expanded their shares. During World War II and immediately thereafter, manufacturing grew most rapidly to meet the demand for war supplies and, later, reparations deliveries (especially metal and engineering products). Since 1948, however, public utilities, transport and communications, commerce, and other services have become the largest producers and employers (see table 4). These structural changes confirm that Finland has nearly reached the stage of a mature developed country, although agriculture and mining remain somewhat more important than in other industrialized countries.

In 1970 GNP was valued at Fmk42.84 billion (for value of the markka -- see Glossary). Per capita income was Fmk9,282 -- fourteenth highest among all developed countries. This high standard of living was achieved despite relatively poor transport, the severe northern climate, and a lack of coal and of most other mineral resources vital to

-167-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Area Handbook for Finland
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Preface v
  • COUNTRY SUMMARY vii
  • FINLAND - TABLE OF CONTENTS xi
  • Contents xii
  • Contents xiii
  • SECTION I. SOCIAL 1
  • Chapter 2 - HISTORICAL SETTING 9
  • Chapter 3 - ENVIRONMENT AND POPULATION 35
  • Chapter 4 - SOCIAL SYSTEM 49
  • Chapter 5 - LIVING CONDITIONS 57
  • Chapter 6 - RELIGIOUS LIFE 71
  • Chapter 7 - EDUCATION AND MASS COMMUNICATIONS 81
  • Chapter 8 - ARTISTIC AND INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT 97
  • SECTION II. POLITICAL 121
  • Chapter 10 - POLITICAL DYNAMICS, ATTITUDES, AND VALUES 139
  • Chapter 11 - FOREIGN RELATIONS 153
  • SECTION III. ECONOMIC 167
  • Chapter 13 - AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY 181
  • Chapter 14 - TRADE, TRANSPORTATION, AND SERVICES 193
  • SECTION IV. NATIONAL SECURITY 207
  • Chapter 16 - THE ARMED FORCES 213
  • Index 247
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 264

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.