Area Handbook for Finland

By Theodore L. Stoddard; William K. Carr et al. | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 14
TRADE, TRANSPORTATION, AND SERVICES

Since the first decades of the twentieth century the domestic trading network has been dominated by a few large, competitive marketing societies. In the early 1970s, however, the tougher competition for the consumer's preference has forced the central dominant trading organizations to completely rethink management methods and plans for the future.

Transportation is modern and suitably adapted to the needs of elements of the population found in remote locations. Air service is exceptionally developed. Nevertheless, given the existence of a good network of principal roads and relatively lower costs, most consumer goods are moved by truck.

Services and transport combined absorb huge investments of both physical capital and human energy. In the 1970s three-fifths of all capital investments and nearly 30 percent of total man-hours worked were in support of the operation of these two sectors.


COMMERCE

In 1971 commerce contributed 10 percent of the gross national product (GNP--see Glossary) and provided employment for 15 percent of the labor force, or 322,000 people. Its three subsectors, domestic trade, banking, and insurance, had a combined growth rate of 5.5 percent over the 1954-68 period, slightly higher than the economy as a whole. Productivity increases in the same period, however, were modest--2.2 percent per year.


Domestic Trade

In the early 1970s four large marketing societies had captured 70 percent of the wholesale trade and 73 percent of the retail trade (see table 11; table 12). The Finnish Cooperative Wholesale Society (Suomen Osuuskauppojen Keskuskunta--SOK) and the Central Cooperative Society (Keskusosuusliike--OTK) are the oldest of the societies. The Wholesale Company of Finnish Retailers (Kesko Oy) and the Foodstuffs Wholesalers Central Association (Tukkukauppojen Oy--TUKO) are private enterprises whose phase of greatest growth dates from the mid-1940s.

The retailing branch of domestic trade employed 160,000 workers in 1971. The wholesaling branch employed 75,000.

-193-

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Area Handbook for Finland
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Preface v
  • COUNTRY SUMMARY vii
  • FINLAND - TABLE OF CONTENTS xi
  • Contents xii
  • Contents xiii
  • SECTION I. SOCIAL 1
  • Chapter 2 - HISTORICAL SETTING 9
  • Chapter 3 - ENVIRONMENT AND POPULATION 35
  • Chapter 4 - SOCIAL SYSTEM 49
  • Chapter 5 - LIVING CONDITIONS 57
  • Chapter 6 - RELIGIOUS LIFE 71
  • Chapter 7 - EDUCATION AND MASS COMMUNICATIONS 81
  • Chapter 8 - ARTISTIC AND INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT 97
  • SECTION II. POLITICAL 121
  • Chapter 10 - POLITICAL DYNAMICS, ATTITUDES, AND VALUES 139
  • Chapter 11 - FOREIGN RELATIONS 153
  • SECTION III. ECONOMIC 167
  • Chapter 13 - AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY 181
  • Chapter 14 - TRADE, TRANSPORTATION, AND SERVICES 193
  • SECTION IV. NATIONAL SECURITY 207
  • Chapter 16 - THE ARMED FORCES 213
  • Index 247
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