THE TRADITIONAL APPROACH
BEFORE we gather up the results of this discussion of the Quinque Viae in order to see exactly where it has led us, it may be well to see what objections can be brought against them as a whole. Kant, it is well known, brought against the Third Way in particular the charge that it made an implicit and illicit appeal to the Ontological Argument in identifying necessary being with ens realissimum. Professor W. R. Sorley has pointed out that Kant's criticisms were really directed against theology as such; "We see," he writes, "that they are directed not simply against the old forms of argument, but against any possible arguments for a knowledge of the ultimate nature, or of the whole, of things."1 Much discussion has ranged round them, and it need not be reproduced here. It will perhaps be more profitable to consider the criticisms recently made by a present-day philosopher, Professor C. D. Broad, who has stated the case against all forms of argument from the existence of the world to the existence of God with consummate clearness. And this task will be all the more____________________
It is not always realized that it was only in late middle-age that Kant developed his hostility to natural theology and that in his earlier works he argued vigorously in support of it.