Chapter Six
Stellaland and Goshen. British Intervention. The Warren Expedition

THE fixing of the boundaries of the Transvaal by the Pretoria Convention of 1881 in no way abated the inclination of the burghers to carve out farms in the wide lands of the Tswana. No mere line could keep these enterprising frontiersmen within bounds. New land and cattle were acquired either by outright freebooting or by means of agents and speculators whose methods are thus described by Mackenzie: 'While on my way from Kuruman to Kimberley in October 1879, I met a party of some forty or fifty white men armed and mounted--their waggons following on behind, containing ploughs, spades, etc. They had crossed the border when I saw them, but told me they had Government sanction, and were expecting the district magistrate to accompany them; and that they were on their way to select farms and to occupy them. On inquiry of Colonel Warren at Kimberley I found that they had been instructed not to cross the border. Orders were at once sent to the police to bring them back. They were acting, it seems under the guidance of a speculative "agent", to whom each farmer had already paid one pound, and had signed an agreement promising to pay said agent other fourteen pounds when the latter had successfully established Mynheer's claim at a landcourt to a farm between Boetsap and Kuruman! One of these enterprising men managed to elude Major Lowe's police, and was found by them, after complaint had been lodged by a native farmer, ploughing at one end of this native man's field, while the native was ploughing at the other.'1 There were, however, other ways. The western boundary of the Transvaal passed between the territories of warring chiefs. Mankurwane son of Molala of the Tlhaping, who had succeeded Mahura, was at war with Masau or Mosweu, a chief of the Korana of Mamusa on the Transvaal side, while Montshiwa, chief of the Rolong round Mafeking, was fighting with Moswete, chief of other Rolong at Khunwana2 in the Transvaal. All these chiefs relied on European supporters, many of them shady characters, whom they induced into their service by promises of land and looted cattle.3 In

____________________
1
J. Mackenzie, Austral Africa, Vol. I, pp. 116-17.
2
Variousy spelt Kunwana, Kunana. The latter is the spelling commonly used in maps of South Africa.
3
Masau (variously spelt Massow, Massouw) called for 400 volunters, each one to be given a farm of 3,000 morgen. In addition, half the total booty was to be divided among the volunteers.

-47-

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