This Chapter is based on an address to officers of the United States Air Force Command and Staff College and the R.C.A.F. Staff College, February 14, 1961.
One sure way to distinguish Canadian policy towards the North Atlantic Treaty Organization from that of the other North American member of the Alliance is by the insistence of every Canadian Government since Mr. St. Laurent's first administration that NATO must become (as the phrase goes) "something more than just an old-fashioned military alliance". Just what the matter is with old-fashioned military alliances is not made too clear: one would have thought nothing is the matter, provided that their members muster strength and hold together when aggressors threaten; but the Canadian view is different. Nor are we told very explicitly what that "something more" should be. The implication, however, is that NATO must extend the range of its activities above and beyond the realm of military affairs. Its members should promote the good life among themselves; and they should use the Alliance as an instrument for political and economic warfare against the Communist world. It is not a bad short-hand description of this attitude to call it "Canada's Article II complex", after the second article in the North Atlantic Treaty enjoining non-military co-operation throughout the Atlantic Community.
Already a fairly substantial mythology has grown up around Canadian external policy; and one of the most widely accepted myths runs something like this: During the years between the two World Wars, Canadians and their governments were isola-