I AM GRATEFUL for the generous assistance of the staff at the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union and Frances E. Willard Memorial Library in Evanston, Illinois, especially Alfred Epstein, curator of the Frances E. Willard Memorial Library, and Claudia Johnson Dobbs, hostess and guide at Rest Cottage. I gratefully acknowledge the Willard Library and the WCTU for their permission to reprint WCTU meeting minutes, pamphlets, letters, and other documents.
Lucy Freibert, perhaps the most inspiring teacher I've known, introduced me to nineteenth-century women and offered continued support throughout my graduate years and since. She will always represent the very best in academics and humanity for me.
Colleagues at Louisiana State University unselfishly provided both essential advice and continuing support. My special gratitude to Robin Roberts and Sharon Aronofsky Weltman, who read drafts of chapters more than once, providing intelligent suggestions and crucial reassurance. I wish to thank other colleagues at LSU: Sarah Liggett and Michelle Masse, who read and responded to portions of the text, and Emily Toth, who advised me in shaping the direction of this project. LSU supported me with a 1993 summer research grant and a 1996 spring semester research grant. I also benefited from a 1995 LSU Women's and Gender Studies Summer Institute. I am thankful as well for the staffs of the interlibrary borrowing office and microfilm reading room at LSU's Middleton Library and at the English department at LSU, as well as for the support of department chairs John Fischer and Jerry Kennedy.
Jerry Phillips's generosity in sharing his proficiency with biblical passages added immensely to my understanding of their meaning for nineteenth-century women. I am grateful as well to two readers at Rhetoric Review, Patricia Bizzell and Kathleen Welch, for their supportive and helpful comments on a portion of the text, and to the anonymous reader