The Industry of New England
Our concern in this book with the industry of New England, it should now be obvious, is only because the agriculture and rural land use of the region are strongly conditioned by it. In considerable measure the dependence is a two-way one. In no slight degree does much of the industry of New England depend upon raw materials, sales outlets, and workers furnished by the agriculture and land of the region. But the larger dependencies and influences run the other way. Circumstances entirely outside of New England agriculture as such have given the industry of the region an eminent position furnishing employment for 1,128,000 workers in 1939 before the late war, and these and their families want milk, eggs, chickens, vegetables, and fruits which can be produced advantageously on adjacent or near-by areas. It is not the intent of this chapter to explore these interdependencies in detail. Later chapters will do this -- especially the sections discussing markets, part-time farming, recreation, land values, and taxation and public finance.
Although only around two-fifths of the gainful workers of New England are employed in manufacturing and mechanical industries, the growth of most individual cities in a region such as New England parallels closely the growth of its industry. Rozman and Sherburne traced this relationship for the cities of Massachusetts from 1833 to 1937.1 For most of Massachusetts' cities, the trends of population and wage-earner employment ran approximately parallel until 1910. Then in the war decade, industrial employment increase generally ran ahead of population increase. In Lynn, Lawrence, and Fall River, however, the war boom held employment only about steady, and in Lowell, Salem, and Marlborough, it failed even to do this. In the twenties,____________________