BY A SECOND CHARTER, issued in 1609, the King of England granted to "The Treasurer and Company of Adventurers and Planters of the City of London, for the first Colony of Virginia," in absolute property, the lands extending from Point Comfort, along the seacoast, two hundred miles to the northward, and from the same point, along the coast, two hundred miles southward; and "up into the Land throughout from Sea to Sea, West and Northwest." This grant included parts of what are now North Carolina and Tennessee; all of Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware; most of Pennsylvania; a part of New York; and all the remaining states to the west and the northwest to the Pacific Ocean. Subsequently this area was pared down by royal grants, and otherwise; but to that part now included in West Virginia, Virginia later strengthened her claims by conquest, by occupation, and by control.
Centrally located between lands lying on the Great Lakes on the one side and on the Atlantic Ocean on the other, West Virginia, in her beginnings, as today, was largely a product of conflicting forces striving to establish an equilibrium. In this she was not exceptional. As a noted teacher has well said, "Man's relations to his environment are infinitely more numerous and complex than those of the most highly organized plant or animal."1 Consequently, the same authority concludes, "Man can no more be scientifically studied apart from the ground which he tills, or the lands____________________