Handbook of Twentieth-Century Literatures of India

By Nalini Natarajan | Go to book overview

122). Other dramatists worthy of mention are Asif Currimbhoy, Santha Rama Rau, and Partap Sharma. Among these, Currimbhoy is distinguished by his ability to incorporate Indian dance and folk traditions. For discussion of Indian drama in English, readers are referred to the critical studies of K. R. Srinivasa Iyengar, Naik, and Williams.6


NOTES
1.
For the most exhaustive articulation in defense of Indian writing in English,see Narasimhaiah 1987, "Towards an Understanding of the Species Called 'Indian Writing in English.'" The Swan and the Eagle, 1-18. For an outline of the problems facing Indian writers in English, see Verghese 1971, "Some Aspects of Indian Fiction in English," Problems of the Indian Creative Writer in English, 98-125. Interestingly, not only regional writers but also some critics of the West oppose the use of English by Indian writers. See, for instance, McCutchion, Indian Writing in English, for a rather pessimistic view of the creative use of English.
2.
For an in-depth critical perspective on the novels of Narayan and Rao, please refer to Knippling 1993, 169-86.
3.
See Jhabvala 1992, 13-21. Jhabvala makes several tendentious claims about the "intolerable ... idea" of India for an outsider (20), the "horror" of India's poverty (14), the shallowness of young, Westernized Indian women (16-17), and so on.
4.
There may be three groups into which these (predominantly British) literary critics fall. First, one group praises certain Indian writers, often on the basis of a favorable comparison with canonical Anglo-American or classical Russian writers. Thus, for instance, is Narayan touted as India's Gogol or Austen by Western reviewers; Mulk Raj Anand is the country's own Charles Dickens; and Anita Desai is its Chekov. The second group consists of wary readers who often confess ambivalence with regard to the status of English in the literature. Generally speaking, these critics are reluctant to grant the English language its own homegrown legitimacy and literary utility in India. David McCutchion, for instance, warns that Indian literature in English stands to be misread as a curious "phenomenon" rather than a "creative contribution" ( McCutchion 1969, 7), because of the colonial legacy of English both for the British and the Indians. The third group is openly critical of the very use of English.
5.
Perhaps to underscore her argument, Kirpal consistently capitalizes the word "new," as in "New Indian novel."

Both the global nature of Indian literary production and the constant traffic of writers to and from India create a peculiar difficulty for the bibliographer of indigenous literature in English. The primary bibliography at the end of this chapter reflects this difficulty of including and excluding texts on the unstable premise of a writer's domicile. Generally, I have sought to represent those writers of Indian origin who, in the course of their lifetime, have spent a considerable amount of time in India.

6.
See Naik 1984, especially "The Achievement of Indian English Drama" (151-65), "The English Plays of Rabindranath Tagore" (166-81), "Gurcharan Das's Larins Sahib" (182-90), and "'From the Horse's Mouth': A Study of Hayavadana (by Girish Karnad)" (191-202); Williams 1977, 121-25.

-95-

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Handbook of Twentieth-Century Literatures of India
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Introduction: Regional Literatures of India-Paradigms and Contexts 1
  • WORKS CITED 18
  • 1- Twentieth-Century Assamese Literature 21
  • Introduction 21
  • WORKS CITED 42
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 42
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 44
  • 2- Twentieth-Century Bengali Literature 45
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 81
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 83
  • 3- Twentieth-Century Indian Literature in English 84
  • INTRODUCTION: THE EVOLUTION OF INDIAN LITERATURE IN ENGLISH 84
  • Notes 95
  • WORKS CITED 96
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 96
  • 4- Twentieth-Century Gujarati Literature 100
  • Conclusion 127
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 128
  • 5- Twentieth-Century Hindi Literature 134
  • Introduction 134
  • Conclusion 152
  • Notes 153
  • Notes 154
  • Notes 155
  • References 157
  • 6- Twentieth-Century Kannada Literature 160
  • Introduction 160
  • WORKS CITED 176
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 176
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 178
  • 7- Twentieth-Century Malayalam Literature 180
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 203
  • 8- Twentieth-Century Marathi Literature 207
  • Introduction 207
  • Notes 238
  • WORKS CITED 239
  • WORKS CITED 241
  • 9- Twentieth-century Panjabi Literature 249
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 286
  • 10- Twentieth-Century Tamil Literature 289
  • WORKS CITED 301
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 301
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 305
  • 11- Twentieth-Century Telugu Literature 306
  • INTRODUCTION: HISTORY AND CONTEXT 306
  • Conclusion 326
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGPAPHY 326
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGPAPHY 328
  • 12- Twentieth-Century Urdu Literature 329
  • WORKS CITED 358
  • 13- Dalit Literature in Marathi 363
  • Introduction 363
  • Notes 377
  • WORKS CITED 377
  • WORKS CITED 378
  • 14- Parsi Literature in English 382
  • INTRODUCTION: HISTORY AND CONTEXT 382
  • Conclusion 395
  • WORKS CITED 395
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 396
  • References 397
  • 15- Sanskrit Poetics 398
  • WORKS CITED 406
  • WORKS CITED 407
  • 16- Perspectives on Bengali Film and Literature 410
  • Introduction 410
  • WORKS CITED 421
  • Selected General Critical Bibliography 423
  • Index 425
  • About the Contributors 439
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