Handbook of Twentieth-Century Literatures of India

By Nalini Natarajan | Go to book overview

To sum up, modern Tamil literature has evolved so rapidly in the past 100 years and shows such vitality and vibrancy that it is clear it will go from strength to strength in the coming century. One cannot do better than to pray to whatever powers there be to send the "roots" of modern Tamil literature "rain" so that its various forms continue to thrive, grow, and come to fruition.


NOTES
1.
The aesthetic-popular aspects of Tamil literature highlighted in this survey connect provocatively with the sociopolitical. It is important to note, in any consideration of Tamil literature, that the "Tamil Renaissance" in literature in the twentieth century weaves in and out of Gandhian nationalism, "Dravidian" identity politics, caste politics, and social reform movements (see Ryerson 1988, esp. Chapter 4). For example, Ryerson notes that the romantic nationalism of poets such as Bharatidasan was connected to a radical socialism, which highlighted a new (classless, casteless) identity based on a literary-linguistic affiliation to Tamil (referring to Bharatidasan Puratchikavi, Ryerson 1988, 82). Tamil literature's role in the caste politics of Tamil Nadu is ambivalent-- uniting castes in a common participation in the production and appreciation of Tamil literature, yet giving rise to acrimonious debates (see Ryerson 1988, 83). As regards women's roles, Tamil literature through the century has redrawn ideological borders even as it has sought to extend women's possibilities. C. S. Lakshmi traces the trajectory from the romantic representations of femaleness as Shakti in reformist poets such as Bharatiyar, to the "pulp fiction" heroines catering to a mass-market and "filmic" culture (see Lakshmi 1984)--Ed.
2.
See note 1.

WORKS CITED

Lakshmi C. S. The Face behind the Mask. New Delhi: Vikas, 1984.

Poo Vannan. Tamizh Ilakkiya Varalaru (Tamil Literary History). Madras: Varthamanan, 1992.

Ryerson Charles. The Tamil Renaissance and Popular Hinduism. Madras: Christian Lit. Society, 1988.

Zvelbil Kamil. The Smile of Murugan on Tamil Literature of South India. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1973.


SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY

Poetry

Bháthi, Subramanya. Bhdrathiyin Kavithaikal. Madras: Vanathi Pathippakam, 1991.

Bhárathi Dasan. Bharathidasan Kavithai Thokuppu (Anthology of Bharathidasan's Poems). Tiruchirapalli: Bharathidasan University Press, 1991.

Chellappa C. S., ed. Puthuk Kuralkal. Madras, 1962.

Pichamurthi N. Kattu Vaththu (Forest Duck). Madras, 1959.

-301-

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Handbook of Twentieth-Century Literatures of India
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Introduction: Regional Literatures of India-Paradigms and Contexts 1
  • WORKS CITED 18
  • 1- Twentieth-Century Assamese Literature 21
  • Introduction 21
  • WORKS CITED 42
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 42
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 44
  • 2- Twentieth-Century Bengali Literature 45
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 81
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 83
  • 3- Twentieth-Century Indian Literature in English 84
  • INTRODUCTION: THE EVOLUTION OF INDIAN LITERATURE IN ENGLISH 84
  • Notes 95
  • WORKS CITED 96
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 96
  • 4- Twentieth-Century Gujarati Literature 100
  • Conclusion 127
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 128
  • 5- Twentieth-Century Hindi Literature 134
  • Introduction 134
  • Conclusion 152
  • Notes 153
  • Notes 154
  • Notes 155
  • References 157
  • 6- Twentieth-Century Kannada Literature 160
  • Introduction 160
  • WORKS CITED 176
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 176
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 178
  • 7- Twentieth-Century Malayalam Literature 180
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 203
  • 8- Twentieth-Century Marathi Literature 207
  • Introduction 207
  • Notes 238
  • WORKS CITED 239
  • WORKS CITED 241
  • 9- Twentieth-century Panjabi Literature 249
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 286
  • 10- Twentieth-Century Tamil Literature 289
  • WORKS CITED 301
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 301
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 305
  • 11- Twentieth-Century Telugu Literature 306
  • INTRODUCTION: HISTORY AND CONTEXT 306
  • Conclusion 326
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGPAPHY 326
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGPAPHY 328
  • 12- Twentieth-Century Urdu Literature 329
  • WORKS CITED 358
  • 13- Dalit Literature in Marathi 363
  • Introduction 363
  • Notes 377
  • WORKS CITED 377
  • WORKS CITED 378
  • 14- Parsi Literature in English 382
  • INTRODUCTION: HISTORY AND CONTEXT 382
  • Conclusion 395
  • WORKS CITED 395
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 396
  • References 397
  • 15- Sanskrit Poetics 398
  • WORKS CITED 406
  • WORKS CITED 407
  • 16- Perspectives on Bengali Film and Literature 410
  • Introduction 410
  • WORKS CITED 421
  • Selected General Critical Bibliography 423
  • Index 425
  • About the Contributors 439
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