Handbook of Twentieth-Century Literatures of India

By Nalini Natarajan | Go to book overview
Urdu in Pakistan has become complicit with actual state policy and regional linguistic reassertions. For example, Bengali nationalism, which led to East Pakistan's becoming independent Bangladesh, was opposed to the imposition of Urdu as the sole national language.
27.
Jalibi explicitly places his discussion within the context of pre-Pakistan Muslim nationalism. See Jameel Jalibi, Pakistani Kalchar. Qaumi Kalchar ki Tashkeel ka Mas'alah ( Karachi: Mushtaq Book Depot, 1964).
28.
A starting point would be a critical assessment of the place and contribution of Chakbast and Premchand and of Urdu's treatment of them. Chakbast is a particularly interesting figure because of his attempt to employ Urdu for reform among Hindus. For Premchand's complaints about the discriminatory treatment of Hindu Urdu writers by the Urdu establishment, see Premchand, Premchand. Adabiyat ( Patna: Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library, 1993).
29.
For details, see Vazeer Agha, Urdu Sha'iri ka Mizaj ( Aligarh: Educational Book House, 1974).
30.
For details, see Muhammad Umar Memon, "Partition Literature: A Study of Intizar Husain," Modern Asian Studies 4:3 ( 1980): 377-410, and "Reclamation of Memory, Fall, and the Death of the Creative Self. Three Movements in the Fiction of Intizar Husain," International Journal of Middle East Studies, No. 13 ( 1981): 73-91.
31.
For a brief survey of the modern Urdu Short story, see Muhammed Memon, "Introduction: The Colour of Nothingness," in his Modern Urdu Short Stories ( Delhi: Penguin, 1991), xi-xxx.
32.
Faruqi devotes a total of three sentences to women poets!
33.
Space does not permit a discussion of women's prose writings. Important writers are listed in the previous sections.
34.
For a good discussion of the "new" ghazal, see Shameem Hanfi, Ghazal ka Naya Manzar Namah ( Aligarh: Educational Book House, 1981).
35.
For a nonprogressive critique of "new" poetry, see Saleem Ahmad, Na'i Sha'iri, Na Maqbool Sha'iri ( Karachi: Nafees Academy, 1989).

WORKS CITED

Ahmad Saleem. Na'i Nazm aur Poora Admi. 1962. Karachi: Nafees Academy, 1989.

Askari Muhammad Hasan. "Muhsin Kakorvi." 1963. In Sitarah ya Badban. Aligarh: Educational Book House, 1977.

Faruqi Shamsur Rahman. "Modern Urdu Literature." In Modern Indian Literature: An Anthology Vol. 1, edited by K. M. George. Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, 1992.

Hardy P. The Muslims of British India. Cambridge University Press, 1972.

Hassan Faruq. "'Beyond Blasphemy and Prayers': The Concept of God in Rashed's Poetry." Annual of Urdu Studies, No. 5 ( 1985): 23-34.

Khan Rasheed Hasan. "Faiz ki Sha'iri ke Chand Pehlu." In Talash o Tabeer. Delhi: Urdu Academy, 1988a.

-----. "Zaban o Bayan ke Baz Pehlu." In Talash o Tabeer. Delhi: Urdu Academy, 1988b.

Naim C. M. "Urdu in the Pre-Modern Period: Synthesis or Particularism?" New Quest, No. 6 ( 1978): 5-12.

Pritchett Frances W. Nets of Awareness: Urdu Poetry and Its Critics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.

-358-

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Handbook of Twentieth-Century Literatures of India
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Introduction: Regional Literatures of India-Paradigms and Contexts 1
  • WORKS CITED 18
  • 1- Twentieth-Century Assamese Literature 21
  • Introduction 21
  • WORKS CITED 42
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 42
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 44
  • 2- Twentieth-Century Bengali Literature 45
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 81
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 83
  • 3- Twentieth-Century Indian Literature in English 84
  • INTRODUCTION: THE EVOLUTION OF INDIAN LITERATURE IN ENGLISH 84
  • Notes 95
  • WORKS CITED 96
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 96
  • 4- Twentieth-Century Gujarati Literature 100
  • Conclusion 127
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 128
  • 5- Twentieth-Century Hindi Literature 134
  • Introduction 134
  • Conclusion 152
  • Notes 153
  • Notes 154
  • Notes 155
  • References 157
  • 6- Twentieth-Century Kannada Literature 160
  • Introduction 160
  • WORKS CITED 176
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 176
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 178
  • 7- Twentieth-Century Malayalam Literature 180
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 203
  • 8- Twentieth-Century Marathi Literature 207
  • Introduction 207
  • Notes 238
  • WORKS CITED 239
  • WORKS CITED 241
  • 9- Twentieth-century Panjabi Literature 249
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 286
  • 10- Twentieth-Century Tamil Literature 289
  • WORKS CITED 301
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 301
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 305
  • 11- Twentieth-Century Telugu Literature 306
  • INTRODUCTION: HISTORY AND CONTEXT 306
  • Conclusion 326
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGPAPHY 326
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGPAPHY 328
  • 12- Twentieth-Century Urdu Literature 329
  • WORKS CITED 358
  • 13- Dalit Literature in Marathi 363
  • Introduction 363
  • Notes 377
  • WORKS CITED 377
  • WORKS CITED 378
  • 14- Parsi Literature in English 382
  • INTRODUCTION: HISTORY AND CONTEXT 382
  • Conclusion 395
  • WORKS CITED 395
  • SELECTED PRIMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY 396
  • References 397
  • 15- Sanskrit Poetics 398
  • WORKS CITED 406
  • WORKS CITED 407
  • 16- Perspectives on Bengali Film and Literature 410
  • Introduction 410
  • WORKS CITED 421
  • Selected General Critical Bibliography 423
  • Index 425
  • About the Contributors 439
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