changes produced by experience and stimulation are influenced by hormones found to modulate memory. For example, long-term potentiation, a neurophysiological analog of memory, is influenced by electrical stimulation of the midbrain reticular formation ( Laroche & Bloch, 1982) as well as by peripheral amphetamine or epinephrine injections ( Gold, Delanoy, & Merrin, 1984). Understanding the bases of such modulating influences, considered together with findings of the effects of these treatments on memory, should contribute significantly to our understanding of brain systems underlying memory storage.
The research in this paper was supported by National Institute of Mental Health Research Grants MH31141 and AG01642 and MH12526 and AG00538. We thank our colleagues and students for their contributions to the ideas and findings summarized in this paper.
Acheson A. L., Zigmond J. M., & Stricker D. M. "Compensatory increase in tyrosine hydroxylase activity in rat brain after intraventricular injections of 6-hydroxydopamine". Science, 1980, 207, 537-540.
Bennett C., Liang K. C., & McGaugh J. L. "Epinephrine alters the effect of amygdala stimulation on retention of avoidance tasks". Neuroscience Abstracts, 1982, 8, 459.
Bloch V. "Facts and hypotheses concerning memory consolidation". Brain Research, 1970, 24, 561-575.
Bohus B., Conti L., Kovacs G. L., & Versteeg D. H. G. "Modulation of memory processes by neuropeptides: Interaction with neurotransmitter systems". In C. Ajmone Marsan & H. Matthies (Eds.), Neuronal plasticity and memory formation. New York: Raven Press, 1982.
Brewton C. B., Liang K. C., & McGaugh J. L. "Adrenal demedullation alters the effect of amygdala stimulation on retention of avoidance tasks". Neuroscience Abstracts, 1981, 7, 870.
Cherkin A. "Kinetics of memory consolidation: Role of amnesic treatment parameters". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1969, 63, 1094-1101.
Costa E., & Guidotti A. "Molecular mechanisms mediating the transynaptic regulator of gene expression in adrenal medulla". In M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, & K. J. Killam (Eds.), Psychopharmacology: A generation of progress. New York: Raven Press, 1978.
Denti A., McGaugh J. L., Landfield P., & Shinkman P. "Facilitation of learning with posttrial stimulation of the reticular formation". Physiology and Behavior, 1970, 5, 659-662.