I wish to thank the scholars who have contributed the wide range of entries in this volume. It is the depth of their analyses and the breadth of their combined study that make possible a reference work such as this. Additionally, I thank the National Endowment for the Humanities for a study grant that allowed me to begin work on this project. I extend my gratitude to the many staff members at the State University of New York at Farmingdale who generously provided the advice, time, and materials necessary for me to complete this project. My thanks also go to Professor Emmanuel Nelson at SUNY Cortland for encouraging this undertaking and submitting it to Greenwood, and to Dr. George Butler, who answered all my questions, often before I asked them. Most of all, I thank my children and stepchildren, Victor, Tyra, Mary, Carolyn, Kathleen, and David, for their support and truly remarkable patience and my husband Del for his help, encouragement, and love.