social contract that treats broadcasting by broad consensus as a special case. True enough, in Western Europe broadcasting was opened to private ownership and competition during the 1980s.19 In the United States, some limitations on ownership of stations and some broadcast and cablecast practices were loosened. Yet nowhere is true deregulation of broadcasting, cable, and satellite being actively promoted, and nowhere are the airwaves truly free. A 1992 study by UNESCO found television not only to still be controlled directly by the government in 102 countries, but also concluded that "even in the most democratic countries, political authorities have never entirely relinquished their influence over the television industry."20 Worldwide, media freedom remains an entirely elusive and unfulfilled idea. Restrictions prevail both in the United States and abroad, and furthermore, cries for additional limitations on program content and broadcasters' rights are in vogue on the eve of the twenty-first century.