There is a growing commentary on urban problems, especially urban educational problems, all of which point to a deepening crisis and concern: huge numbers of Americans now live and learn in ever-expanding cities and megalopolises. This reference work is a guide to the most critical issues at the heart of schooling in these urban areas. Each chapter in this reference is written by an authority on a particular aspect of urban schooling. Together, the chapters in this reference provide a comprehensive overview of historical and contemporary facets of urban education and point to new directions for future research.
The first section of this Handbook of Schooling in Urban America takes a historical view of the development of urban education and its problems. The section begins with a short history of urban education, followed by chapters on particular case histories of the urban educational experience.
The second section of this reference examines political and organizational perspectives and their effects on urban schooling. A brief introductory chapter overviews criticism of urban schools and provides a context for the more specific chapters that follow. The first of these chapters carefully examines the role of policymakers and politics in urban education. The next chapter looks more particularly at politics and the curriculum. A chapter then discusses bureaucratic organizational structures in urban school systems, and a final chapter addresses administrative and supervisory perceptions of teacher competency.
The third section provides an insightful look at minority perspectives on urban education. The first chapter gives special attention to multiculturalism and the Puerto Rican experience in urban schools. The second explores the difficulties of African-American, Hispanic, and Vietnamese students. A final chapter considers the special needs of girls in urban schools and whether those needs are adequately met.
Teacher-pupil relations have a strong impact on the urban educational experience, and the fourth section of this reference considers the topic in detail. An