Orientation and Position
To be oriented is to have a definable position within an intelligible context or frame of reference. Having a position refers to a stance, a way of standing rather than merely a place to stand ( Romanyshyn, 1978). To fully understand a stance, however, one must first understand the spatial analogy of position from which it derives.
Consider a male backpacker on a hike in a wilderness area. Without a map of some kind, he is lost or disoriented. There is no specifiable position, and no hope of finding one as a position presupposes a frame within which one could establish a position. If there is no frame, there can be no position. In this sense, frame and position form an indissoluble unity. To identify a position necessarily involves a context or frame for the position.
One can describe a frame, however, without specifying any particular position. A frame offers the possibility of many positions; it is an organizer and a container of positions. Because a map organizes positions, it allows one to coherently envision a change of position. Indeed, the backpacker's hike could be construed as an orderly change of position.
Without a map, the only intelligible action is to seek a map upon which to establish position. Being oriented or disoriented are relative terms. One is oriented or disoriented relative to the level or kind of action that is contemplated. For