Not One Chance in Thousands
To my thinking there is not one chance in thousands that we will ever be called upon to defend against an invading army of any magnitude, or to send an army of invasion of great size into any foreign land.
-- Senator William J. Stone, 1916
Historians of pre-war American defense policy are critical of President Wilson. One recurrent evaluation is that Wilson conducted an "inept foreign policy" that he knew risked war with Germany yet failed to integrate national defense policy with his diplomacy.1 How can his foreign and domestic policies be reconciled? Some of his admirers claim that he viewed military enthusiasts and all things military with justifiable suspicion. In Thomas Knock's memorable phrase, "The reactionary opponents of domestic reform and the advocates of militarism, imperialism and balance of power politics were twins born of the same womb."2 Detractors agree that the president slighted defense but stress his legalistic and moralistic ideological prejudices. Of course, Wilsonian policy-making was not performed in a vacuum or a test-