economic creature who had no thinking capacity of his or her own but instead was a social person with deep feelings who was complex and intelligent. Table 4 summarizes the differences in how business leaders pictured workers being prior to the Hawthorne studies and after the Hawthorne studies.
These studies, along with Dewey's work and writing, placed the early opening in the doors of industry for increased involvement by psychologists, sociologists, philosophers, and behavioral management specialists to enter into industry and advise (and sometimes even direct) upper management how best to operate their business.
This chapter reviews some of the leading European and American writers, thinkers, and practitioners from the time of the American Revolution up to 1930. It discusses and shows how they influenced the operational and social awareness changes in industry during this period. It historically discusses the growth of America from a rural farm-dominated economy to a predominantly industrial economy. Industry formation, growth, and operation are reviewed from the early "robber baron" formative years through the taming of this monopolistic growth pattern by the implementation of new laws and judiciary restraint as the federal government grew in power. The growth and battles with management and judicial personnel that the workers go through in their early union-forming days are reviewed as are the early Hawthorne studies that show that workers are not simple indifferent persons as management depicted them but are complex social persons as the union was trying to say.