Human Behavior in Today's World

By Waris Ishaq | Go to book overview

6
Free Operant Behavior Research Methods

David P. Rider

Behavior analysis is characterized more by the methods than by the content of its research. It comprises two virtually distinct fields: The experimental analysis of behavior is devoted to basic research on the relation between behavior and environment. Applied behavior analysis, which evolved from the experimental analysis of behavior, is adapted to applied research on socially significant behavior ( Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968, 1987; Ferster, 1953; Hineline, 1984; Honig, 1966; Skinner, 1938, 1966a).

These two fields share several methodological characteristics. Both are concerned with the behavior of individual subjects. Both focus on observable aspects of behavior and environment. They emphasize the experimental control of behavior -- demonstration that the behavior under investigation is controlled by variables manipulated by the experimenter -- as opposed to inferences based on statistical analyses of behavior.

These fields also differ on some important methodological grounds. Applied behavior analysis is constrained to study behaviors of social significance and to investigate potential solutions to social problems. The experimental analysis of behavior has no such constraints. It does, however, retain some idiosyncrasies in the sort of behavior most commonly studied and in its methods for studying behavior. Those idiosyncrasies are related to the field's evolution from the mainstream of experimental psychology in the 1930s. This chapter provides a brief historical sketch of the origins of research methods for the experimental analysis of behavior.

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Human Behavior in Today's World
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xi
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Introduction: Behavior Analysis in a Sociopolitical Context 1
  • References 15
  • Part I - The World is Falling Apart 17
  • 1 - Why We Are Not Acting to Save the World 19
  • 2 - The Sky is Falling 31
  • References 37
  • 3 - Behavior Analysis and Global Survival 39
  • References 49
  • 4 - Beware of Coercion 51
  • References 69
  • Part II - The Science of Behavior Change 71
  • 5 - The Source and Control of Behavior 73
  • References 85
  • 6 - Free Operant Behavior Research Methods 87
  • References 96
  • 7 - Verbal Behavior: A Four-Term Contingency Relation 99
  • References 108
  • 8 - Stimulus Equivalence: Implications for Teaching 109
  • References 119
  • 9 - Everyday Stimulus Equivalences for the Brain-Injured 123
  • References 131
  • 10 - Schedules of Reinforcement 133
  • References 138
  • 11 - Behaviorology: Its Paradigm 139
  • References 147
  • Part III - Education: Problems and Solutions 149
  • 12 - Contingencies in Day Care Licensing Standards 151
  • References 161
  • 13 - A Rational Technology of Education 163
  • References 170
  • 14 - Positive Reinforcement in Education 171
  • 15 - Behavior Analysis With the Mildly Handicapped 175
  • References 183
  • Part IV - Stimulus Control In Etiology and Treatment 189
  • 16 - Stimulus Control: Principles and Procedures 191
  • 17 - Applocation: Substance Abuse and Dependency 205
  • References 214
  • 18 - Application: Smoking 217
  • References 227
  • Part V - Applications In the Practice of Psychology 231
  • 19 - Clinical Behavior Analysis 233
  • References 244
  • Part VI - Culture and Behavior 247
  • 20 - Walden Two in Real Life: Behavior Analysis in the Design of a Culture 249
  • References 255
  • 21 - Behavior Analysis Across Cultures 257
  • References 277
  • Part VII - In the World of Work 279
  • 22 - Behavior Analysis in Organizations 281
  • References 290
  • Part VIII - Epilogue 293
  • 23 - Wrap-Up: Behavior Analysis is Doing Good Well 295
  • Index 301
  • About the Editor and Contributors 309
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