Human Behavior in Today's World

By Waris Ishaq | Go to book overview

10
Schedules of Reinforcement

Edward K Crossman

When each instance of a particular behavior is followed by a particular stimulus that is reinforcing, behavior analysts refer to this schedule as continuous reinforcement (CRF). It is the richest contingent schedule of reinforcement. The term "contingent" means that the target behavior (the behavior pinpointed for change) must occur before a reinforcer is given. The other extreme is represented by a schedule in which all reinforcers are withheld following the target response. This schedule is known as Extinction, or EXT.

In the simplest case, consider a food-deprived rat in a chamber that contains a bar and a mechanism for delivering pellets of food. Each depression of the bar by the previously trained rat results in a single pellet (CRF). This produces a constant but not very high rate of responding. Eventually the rat satiates and stops responding. On the other hand, if, prior to satiation, the rat is placed on Extinction (EXT), its rate of responding will increase temporarily and then slowly decrease, eventually ceasing altogether. A student who has always received high scores on tests, but upon advancing to the next grade level always receives low test scores, is said to be first on CRF and then on EXT for test-taking behavior.

In considering the prevalence of reinforcement processes in everyday life that strengthen behavior (make it more likely to occur) or weaken behavior (make it less likely to occur), it would seem that pure examples of either CRF or EXT are hard to imagine. Clinical psychologists may

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Human Behavior in Today's World
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xi
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Introduction: Behavior Analysis in a Sociopolitical Context 1
  • References 15
  • Part I - The World is Falling Apart 17
  • 1 - Why We Are Not Acting to Save the World 19
  • 2 - The Sky is Falling 31
  • References 37
  • 3 - Behavior Analysis and Global Survival 39
  • References 49
  • 4 - Beware of Coercion 51
  • References 69
  • Part II - The Science of Behavior Change 71
  • 5 - The Source and Control of Behavior 73
  • References 85
  • 6 - Free Operant Behavior Research Methods 87
  • References 96
  • 7 - Verbal Behavior: A Four-Term Contingency Relation 99
  • References 108
  • 8 - Stimulus Equivalence: Implications for Teaching 109
  • References 119
  • 9 - Everyday Stimulus Equivalences for the Brain-Injured 123
  • References 131
  • 10 - Schedules of Reinforcement 133
  • References 138
  • 11 - Behaviorology: Its Paradigm 139
  • References 147
  • Part III - Education: Problems and Solutions 149
  • 12 - Contingencies in Day Care Licensing Standards 151
  • References 161
  • 13 - A Rational Technology of Education 163
  • References 170
  • 14 - Positive Reinforcement in Education 171
  • 15 - Behavior Analysis With the Mildly Handicapped 175
  • References 183
  • Part IV - Stimulus Control In Etiology and Treatment 189
  • 16 - Stimulus Control: Principles and Procedures 191
  • 17 - Applocation: Substance Abuse and Dependency 205
  • References 214
  • 18 - Application: Smoking 217
  • References 227
  • Part V - Applications In the Practice of Psychology 231
  • 19 - Clinical Behavior Analysis 233
  • References 244
  • Part VI - Culture and Behavior 247
  • 20 - Walden Two in Real Life: Behavior Analysis in the Design of a Culture 249
  • References 255
  • 21 - Behavior Analysis Across Cultures 257
  • References 277
  • Part VII - In the World of Work 279
  • 22 - Behavior Analysis in Organizations 281
  • References 290
  • Part VIII - Epilogue 293
  • 23 - Wrap-Up: Behavior Analysis is Doing Good Well 295
  • Index 301
  • About the Editor and Contributors 309
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