Human Behavior in Today's World

By Waris Ishaq | Go to book overview

18
Application: Smoking

Charles Lyons

Tobacco use currently represents the most prevalent disease-producing and life-threatening activity in the United States. The use of tobacco is responsible for over 300,000 deaths each year in the United States alone, accounting for one-sixth of all U.S. deaths in 1985. While the prevalence of smoking in the United States has declined by over 1 million persons since 1976 (and pipe and cigar smoking has dropped 80 percent since 1964), 51.1 million American adults remained regular smokers in 1985, each consuming an average of 18-22 cigarettes per day. Smokeless tobacco use has increased among young men, with an estimated 8.2 percent of males 17 to 19 years old using smokeless tobacco products in 1986 ( U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [ DHHS], 1988).

For years the similarities between addiction to tobacco and addiction to other drugs (such as alcohol, heroin, and cocaine) have been recognized, especially in terms of general treatment outcomes. Relapse rate curves across these substances show relative uniformity, and historically only 25 to 30 percent of individuals receiving treatment for these addictive behaviors remain abstinent after 9 months (see Hunt & Bespalec, 1974). Since 1980, the official classification system of the American Psychiatric Association, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), has included diagnostic categories relating to dependence on and withdrawal from tobacco. Recognizing the role of nicotine as the active pharmacological substance that reinforces the behavior of smoking, the current revision of DSM-III retains "nicotine dependence" and "nic-

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Human Behavior in Today's World
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xi
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Introduction: Behavior Analysis in a Sociopolitical Context 1
  • References 15
  • Part I - The World is Falling Apart 17
  • 1 - Why We Are Not Acting to Save the World 19
  • 2 - The Sky is Falling 31
  • References 37
  • 3 - Behavior Analysis and Global Survival 39
  • References 49
  • 4 - Beware of Coercion 51
  • References 69
  • Part II - The Science of Behavior Change 71
  • 5 - The Source and Control of Behavior 73
  • References 85
  • 6 - Free Operant Behavior Research Methods 87
  • References 96
  • 7 - Verbal Behavior: A Four-Term Contingency Relation 99
  • References 108
  • 8 - Stimulus Equivalence: Implications for Teaching 109
  • References 119
  • 9 - Everyday Stimulus Equivalences for the Brain-Injured 123
  • References 131
  • 10 - Schedules of Reinforcement 133
  • References 138
  • 11 - Behaviorology: Its Paradigm 139
  • References 147
  • Part III - Education: Problems and Solutions 149
  • 12 - Contingencies in Day Care Licensing Standards 151
  • References 161
  • 13 - A Rational Technology of Education 163
  • References 170
  • 14 - Positive Reinforcement in Education 171
  • 15 - Behavior Analysis With the Mildly Handicapped 175
  • References 183
  • Part IV - Stimulus Control In Etiology and Treatment 189
  • 16 - Stimulus Control: Principles and Procedures 191
  • 17 - Applocation: Substance Abuse and Dependency 205
  • References 214
  • 18 - Application: Smoking 217
  • References 227
  • Part V - Applications In the Practice of Psychology 231
  • 19 - Clinical Behavior Analysis 233
  • References 244
  • Part VI - Culture and Behavior 247
  • 20 - Walden Two in Real Life: Behavior Analysis in the Design of a Culture 249
  • References 255
  • 21 - Behavior Analysis Across Cultures 257
  • References 277
  • Part VII - In the World of Work 279
  • 22 - Behavior Analysis in Organizations 281
  • References 290
  • Part VIII - Epilogue 293
  • 23 - Wrap-Up: Behavior Analysis is Doing Good Well 295
  • Index 301
  • About the Editor and Contributors 309
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