An Introduction to Psychology

By Mary Whiton Calkins | Go to book overview

CONCLUSION

CHAPTER XXVIII
THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

THE history of a science is the account of men's systematic observation and thought on a given subject. It is evident that no one can profitably study other men's results except by comparing them with results of his own observation and reflection. For this reason, the study of the history of a science never can replace, or precede, the study of the science itself. When, however, one has made one's own examination of the facts, and one's own reflections and deductions, usually under the guidance and direction of some one teacher and of some particular text-book, it is well to compare the familiar methods and results with the methods and results of other people. Besides serving as basis for the estimation of one's own theories, the study of the history of a science may, furthermore, furnish positive suggestion and may definitely invigorate individual study.

It is very difficult to define the limits of our study, for it is all but impossible to fix the beginnings of psychology. At the outset, it will be remembered, we admitted that scientific study differs in method, not in material, from everyday observation. It is natural, therefore, that the one should melt into the other without any fixed line of demarcation. No one, for example, would reckon Homer among the psychologists, yet the germs of a classification of psychic facts are found, in his nice distinctions between the emotional experiences which he designates by the words U+03BGU+IF11νος, θνμός, καρδί and ñτορ.

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An Introduction to Psychology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Table of Contents ix
  • Introduction 1
  • Book I - Introspective Psychology of the Normal Consciousness 15
  • Part I - Structural Elements of Consciousness 17
  • Part II - Concrete Conscious Experiences 147
  • Book II - Comparative Psychology and Abnormal Psychology 349
  • Part I - Comparative Psychology 355
  • Part II - Abnormal Psychology 397
  • Conclusion 424
  • Appendix 447
  • Bibliography 492
  • Index of Subjects 505
  • Index of Authors 511
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