RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS AND BELIEFS
The history of the missions and the history of Christian civilization -- The Company of Jesus and the Reformation -- The first mission of the Jesuits to Brazil -- Catechism: José de Anchieta -- The gospel in the jungle -- The tempest of the Reformation and its repercussion in Brazil -- The foundation in Rome ( 1622) of a permanent Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith -- The expansion of missions -- The missionaries against the abuses of the conquest -- Antdnio Vieira in his struggle against the slavery of the Indians -- Culture in this period more or less the-tributary of religion-Catholicism and the influence of Afro-Indian religions -- The big house, the chapel and slave quarters -- Churches and temples -- The pulpit in Brazil -- The training of priests -- The orders and religious congregations -- Their wealth and their flourishing -- Masonry -- The activities of the masonic lodges -- The fusion of church and State -- The influence of the clergy -- The great preachers -- The religious question -- Freedom of worship and of belief -- Protestantism and its progress -- Spiritualism and other forms of religion -- Theosophy-Positivism -- The "religion of humanity" -- Religion and culture -- The dominance of the Catholic religion.
IT MAY SEEM STRANGE at first sight that when we approach the analysis of the culture in the more restricted sense, and in its fundamental aspects, we should begin by studying religious beliefs and institutions. Certainly, taking the term "culture" in its broadest significance, as it is common in the field of cultural anthropology, religious beliefs and institutions are an integral part of the spiritual culture of a people. Seen in this light, it would be one of the conditions and factors of culture in the more limited sense of intellectual, literary, artistic, or scientific development. But so intimate and constant are the relations between the development of religion in Brazil and that of intellectual life in our first three centuries, that one cannot for that long period separate one from the other. In that phase of our social formation, it was indeed out of religious aims, forms, and essentials that practically the whole culture was developed in this part of the continent. Religion had an influence in the colonial period that was without doubt preponderant and practically exclusive in the organization of the system of culture, which, as much in its content as in its forms and institutions, shows vividly those relations of close dependence between culture and religion. It is not only points of contact that were established between them, zones of influence and of interpenetration, but true bonds which tied them together from their beginning, interweaving their roots and obliging us to relate our cultural history to events, institutions, and influences in the field of religion. Tributary to religion, on whose sap it was nourished for a long time, culture only later, especially in the nineteenth century, became detached from the church, without ceasing to the Christian in its spirit and in its manifestations, in order to tie itself up with professional life and institutions designed for the preparation for the liberal professions. Thus, of ecclesiastical initiative and religious content at the beginning, growing up in the shade of convents, seminaries, and the colleges of the