THE ORIGINS OF SCHOLASTIC INSTITUTIONS
The revival of culture in Brazil -- The influence of the ideas of the encyclopedists -- Azeredo Coutinho and the Seminary of Olinda -- The work of Dom João VI: the founder of institutions -- The first schools for higher vocational training -- The foundation of law courses in the first Empire -- The Additional Act ( 1834) and decentralization -- The absence of organized basic teaching and of general university teaching -- The Colégio Pedro II -- The patriarchal economy and the corresponding type of culture -- Education for civilization based on slavery -- Exaggerated tendency in the direction of the liberal careers -- The predominance of a culture of professional character -- Popular education and the first normal schools -- Secondary education of a classical type -- The almost exclusive cultivation of belles lettres -- The splendor and decay of private secondary education -- The great educators -- The cooperation of the religious orders in secondary education -- The activity of Dom Pedro II -- The influence of the higher institutions of culture -- The reforms of the Viscount of Rio Branco -- The School of Mines in Ouro Preto -- The opinion of Rui Barbosa in 1882 -- Tendencies of pedagogical thought -- The last speech from the throne-A fruit which was not yet ripe . . .
BETWEEN THE EXPULSION of the Jesuits in 1759 and the removal of the Portuguese court to Brazil in 1808, there is a parenthesis of almost half a century, a long hiatus which is characterized by the lack of organization and decay of colonial education. No institutional organization, in fact, came to take the place of the powerful homogeneity of the Jesuit system, which had grown up all along the plantation owning coast, with branches in the wooded interior and on the plateau, and whose colleges and seminaries in the colony were the great centers for the spread of culture. In their places, we have seen, what arose under the pressure of circumstances were isolated classes in fragmentary and scattered subjects which hardly succeeded in taking on the appearance of systematic education in the rare, religious schools established in convents. But neither the mass departure of the Fathers of the Society of Jesus nor the reforms of Pombal with their belated effect upon the colony, succeeded in shaking the social and cultural unity which had been imparted by the religious idea and maintained by the same conception of life and culture and by the same social and economic regime. The type of teaching and education adopted by the Jesuits, -- a system which was moreover useful for the ends of their principal consumer, the Church, and had formerly been organized by the Church --, appeared to satisfy entirely the elementary requirements of the society at that time with its agricultural and slave owning structure in which study, when it was not a mere luxury for the feudal and aristocratic group, was no more than a means of social classification for mestizos and the business bourgeoisie of the cities. Remaining almost entirely ecclesiastical, all of this traditional teaching which had been transferred from the hands of the Jesuits to those of the secular priests and to the Franciscan and Carmelite friars, -- their natural continuers, as they were the most lettered part of colonial society --, did not catch in their meshes any more than the students who