The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism, 1795-1800

By Stephen G. Kurtz | Go to book overview

Appendixes

APPENDIX A
METHODS BY WHICH ELECTORS WERE CHOSEN 1796
1. By legislature: 10 * states casting an electoral vote of
New Hampshire, 6; Vermont, 4; Connecticut, 9; New
York, 12; New Jersey, 7; Delaware, 3; North Carolina,
12; South Carolina, 8; Tennessee, 3; Massachusetts, 9.
73
2. In districts: 4 * states casting an electoral vote of
Maryland, 10; Virginia, 21; Kentucky, 4; Massachusetts, 7.
42
3. By general ticket: 2 states with an electoral vote of
Pennsylvania, 15; Georgia, 4.
19
4. By town meeting: Rhode Island casting an electoral vote of4
Total 138
* The Massachusetts Constitution of 1781, largely drafted by John Adams,
carried the prevailing theory of checks and balances over even into the
electoral system. Recognizing two basic divisions in all societies, rich and
poor, Adams aimed at preventing control of the electoral machinery by
either economic group. The aristocratic or wealthy party was given a
proportionate influence in choosing electors through its control of the
upper house of the legislature and the democratic or poor party through
its control of the lower house and direct elections. This, basically, was the
reasoning behind the Massachusetts combination method. See Correa M. Walsh , The Political Science of John Adams ( New York, 1915), for an
analysis of Adams; political philosophy. His own Works, especially vol. VI,
pp. 280 ff., and vol. IX, 570 ff., are but little more verbose than the com-
mentary.
For a brief discussion of the strong and weak points of the electoral
process used in early national times see John Bach McMaster, History, II,
306-307. McMaster's figures are in error in two respects. Georgia chose her
electors by general ticket and not by means of the legislature. ( U. B. Phillips , Georgia and State Rights, Washington, 1902, p. 91). Newspaper
sources reporting the Virginia returns show that electors were chosen in
district contests and not by general ticket as McMaster states. In 1800 Vir-
ginia switched.

-409-

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The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism, 1795-1800
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page 3
  • Preface 7
  • Contents 13
  • Illustrations 15
  • 1 - Bright Hopes for Mr. Jefferson 19
  • 2 - The Republican Challenge 39
  • 3 - Popular Federalism 59
  • 4 - The Candidates of 1796 78
  • 5 - Adams and Hamilton 96
  • 6 - Imported and Domestic Designs for Victory 114
  • 7 - The States and the Presidency 145
  • 8 - A Political Revolution in Pennsylvania 177
  • 9 - Discontent with Hamilton 192
  • 10 - Adams and Jefferson: Friendship and Politics 209
  • 11 - The Patronage Crisis and the Decline In Federal Status 239
  • 12 - The President and His Secretaries 261
  • 13 - Political Consequences of the Xyz Papers 284
  • 15 - A Just and Politic Peace 334
  • 16 - Politics and Peace, 1799 354
  • 17 - Independence 374
  • Appendixes 409
  • Bibliography 417
  • Index 441
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