harsh?'.128 The substance and the method of these traditionalists was replicated in the works of certain later Grotian theorists on war. Modern Grotian theorists such as Hedley Bull argued for order as the supreme principle of international society, overriding in most cases concerns for alternative claims such as justice. When in doubt, they fell back on the Grotian methodological blueprint, which released them from specific moral commitments in order to continue to uphold order as the supreme value. Hedley Bull's views on this matter are worth setting out, as he deemed international order the cornerstone of any society, or, indeed, system. For Bull, order preceded concerns of justice--the goal of order was a core value, whereas justice was a secondary one. In any conflict between the two, he took the 'conservative or orthodox view' which prioritized order, arguing that it would be too difficult to find a 'consensus' on the demands of justice if it entailed change: 'the prospect is opened up that the consensus which does exist about order or minimum coexistence will be undone'. This is another example of Bull's use of the notions of perversity and jeopardy to defend threats to order.129
This chapter has outlined the contours of a new tradition of the laws of war derived from the writings of Grotius. It is a tradition that drew on his writings on international relations and international law, yet was distinct from both of them. This Grotian tradition of war was based on a hierarchical reading of the notion of sociability; the dualist potential of natural law both as progressive and regressive guides for human action; the overriding concern with state sovereignty and law; the subordination of the demands of liberty to those of order; the occupation of a middle path between two contending political ideologies; and a claim to neutrality which concealed an ideological parti pris. From the perspective of the laws of war, whose terms of reference it defined, this Grotian tradition was strongly attached to the notion of maintaining a clear distinction between lawful and unlawful combatants.
As an ideological construct, this tradition of war had a number of strengths and weaknesses. On the positive side, one of its greatest assets was its sheer discursive power; its capacity to articulate the proper fron-____________________