I HAVE to thank the numerous friends and critics who were kind enough, following the request contained in the preface to the German edition, to offer suggestions for the improvement of my book. I have made use of these suggestions in preparing the English edition now offered to the reader. I have also tried not only to bring my work up to date but to amplify it by the addition of two new sections, "The Comintern and the Peoples of the East" and "The Soviets and the Chinese Party", as well as many new references to Communism in Asia.
The present book carries the story up to the Third Party Conference of the Russian Workers' Party in June 1960 and to the Declaration of the twelve Communist parties issued on that occasion. The fact that the Moscow Declaration of November 1960 contained nothing fundamentally new made it all the easier to decide not to deal with it.
For their patient acceptance of my many demands for corrections and improvements, I must thank not only my translator, Victor Andersen, but also all the others who have so uncomplainingly borne with this onerous task.
Cologne, December 1960