B EFORE moving on to consider the forms taken by proletarian internationalism after 1945, it is necessary to glance at the general situation.
From 1944 onwards there arose in Eastern Europe a number of states whose governments, originally coalitions of bourgeois parties with Socialists and Communists, came increasingly under Communist domination. Without going into detail regarding this process, it can be said that by 1948 it was complete in all the East European states with the exception of Yugoslavia, where there had been a People's Republic from the beginning.1 Soviet domination of the countries which had become Soviet satellites did not rest only on the fact that the CPSU controlled their national Communist parties, although party connections undoubtedly did form the mainstay of Soviet power and were evident in every aspect of life. Further factors strengthening the position of the Soviet Union were the presence of the Soviet armed forces, whose importance varied from country to country, the despatching of Soviet "advisers" into the most important branches of public affairs (e.g. the state security service) and close economic ties.2 Of these, the presence of Soviet troops in the "People's Democracies" played a very considerable, and in some cases decisive, role. The popular risings in the Soviet Zone of Germany in June 1953 and in Hungary in October-November 1956 were only put down by Soviet troops stationed in those areas, and in some cases strengthened by reinforcements from elsewhere. Poland was always a particularly sensitive point for the Soviet despots,____________________