THE ESSAYS in this book were completed during an Interuniversity Summer Research Seminar held at Duke University from June 4 to July 28, 1956. Sponsored by the Social Science Research Council, the seminar brought together a group of scholars from different institutions who had a previous active and common interest in American diplomatic history, particularly in certain related ideas in twentieth-century foreign policy. While the seminar emphasized individual research and exchange of ideas, the authors felt that the essays, though exploratory, might be published together and prove of interest to a wider audience than that reached by the usual professional journal.
Speaking for all the seminar members, I thank the Social Science Research Council for the funds which made possible a stimulating experience. We thank the Duke University administration and the university library for the facilities provided. For assistance in launching this project, I am indebted to Paul H. Clyde, Professor of History and Director of the Summer Session; Joseph J. Spengler, James B. Duke Professor of Economics; R. Taylor Cole, James B. Duke Professor of Political Science; Professor Paul M. Gross, Vice-President of the University; Professor Alan K. Manchester, Dean of Trinity College, all of Duke University; and to Ray Allen Billington, William Mason Smith Professor of History, Northwestern University; and Richard W. Leopold, Professor of History, Northwestern University. For assistance in bringing the essays into print I am indebted and grateful to Professor John R. Alden, Department of History, Duke University and to Ashbel G. Brice, Director and Editor of Duke University Press.
Durham, North Carolina January 28, 1957