The Political Elite of the Republic of Moldova
Many complex questions associated with the formation, development, and function of the Moldovian elite remain unanswered by Moldovian sociologists and political scientists. The reasons for this are twofold: 1) the fields of sociology and political science in Moldova are still in their infancy, and 2) the majority of social scientists interested in Moldova rely on a Marxist-Leninist methodological approach to studying society. Therefore, the reader should consider this essay as one of the first attempts at reaching a better and more accurate understanding of Moldovian political elites.
The term "elite" will be used to describe those who have access to the tools of power. The political, economic, military, and other elites are the groups of individuals who directly participate in making decisions that effect the social, economic, and political life of the country. The terms "ruling elite" and "counterelite" will also be used. Ruling elites are part of Moldova's multiparty system and are directly involved in the management of society. The counterelite also manage society and are the most politically active part of the opposition.
The Republic of Moldova appeared on the political map August 27, 1991. After the failure of the August putsch in Moscow, the Parliament accepted the decision to have the republic exit the structure of the USSR and proclaim its independence. The republic became possible because the counterelite, constituted in the conditions of reorganization (perestroika), wrested the power from the hands of the old elite. The old elite had developed under Soviet totalitarianism and had managed to ratify itself as a new authority structure.
During the Soviet "reality," any attempt to create an opposition organization was quickly impeded. The ruling elite of Moldova (within