HEGEL AND MARX
|1.||To reject all ideas of God and a real world as traditionally conceived. This rejection left no underpinning for human knowledge of the world and, therefore, all that remained was knowledge that we construct.|
|2.||To affirm the idea of God who is ontologically independent of the universe God created while nevertheless being immanent with it; and to affirm the idea of a real world which our claims to knowledge seek to approximate.|
Hegel ( 1770-1831), one of the greatest successors to Kant, marked the beginning of a path that took the first of these two ideas seriously. Hegel rejected all ideas of a real world independent of the one we know. Hegel's philosophy, in turn, lead to Karl Marx and to complete rejection of God.
Hegel had gone a long way down this path, because for Hegel, God, Geist or Absolute Spirit was not an existing reality, ontologically independent of the universe and on which the universe depended. Instead, Geist was emerging into consciousness through human reason. Geist would only come to self-fulfilment at the end of history. The whole of history can be seen as the journey towards