Government and Nationalism in Southeast Asia

By Rupert Emerson; Lennox A. Mills et al. | Go to book overview

II. THE PHILIPPINES

The population of the Philippines in 1941 was estimated to be about 17,000,000, over 90 per cent of whom are Christians, mainly Roman Catholics. Basically all the people are of Malay stock, with in many localities a considerable admixture of Spanish and Chinese blood. About 600,000 pagans live in the mountains of Northern Luzon and in wild country throughout the Archipelago, and the same number of Mohammedan Moros in Mindanao and the Sulu Islands. There are also some 120,000 Chinese, 29,000 Japanese and 14,000 Americans and Europeans.

Both the pagan tribes and the Moros are traditionally hostile to the Christian Filipinos owing to differences of religion, stage of civilization and past history. The Filipinos who live in the plains of Luzon and the Visayan Islands occupy the richest and, from the military point of view, the most accessible part of the Archipelago. They were conquered and Christianized by the Spaniards in the 16th Century and their racial traits were influenced to a very important degree by their long contact with Spanish and American rule. No other Asiatic race has been under complete Western control for so long a time: the Dutch, for example, did not dethrone most of the Javanese sultans and substitute government by Dutch officials until the 18th and early 19th Centuries. Nearly four centuries of Spanish and American rule have had profound and far-reaching effects upon the Filipinos and have made them the most Westernized of all the peoples of Asia. As a result of this historical evolution they became increasingly unlike the pagan tribes and the Moros, who retained their independence until they were conquered by the United States. The pagans of northern Luzon owed their long immunity to their fighting prowess combined with the very difficult nature of the country and the fact that so far as the Spaniards knew it had no resources which would repay the'cost of military operations. Until about a generation ago the tribes retained their primitive civilization almost unchanged, and their custom of head-hunting gained them a good deal of notoriety. When the American regime ended, control was transferred to the Commonwealth Government, and the

-53-

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Government and Nationalism in Southeast Asia
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • The Institute of Pacific Relations iv
  • Title Page v
  • Foreward vii
  • Editorial Note xi
  • Contents xiii
  • Part I - Introduction 1
  • Part II - The Governments of Southeast Asia 37
  • Author's Note 38
  • 1. Introduction 39
  • Ii. the Philippines 53
  • Iii. Burma 70
  • Iv. British Malaya 78
  • V. Hongkong 92
  • Vi. the Netherlands Indies 97
  • Vii. French Indo-China 107
  • Viii. Taiwan 113
  • Ix. Thailand 118
  • Part III - Nationalism and Nationalist Movements in Southeast Asia 125
  • I. Introduction: Comparative Nationalisms 127
  • Ii. the Philippines 145
  • Iii. Burma 159
  • Iv. British Malaya 169
  • V. the Netherlands Indies 182
  • Vi. French Indo-China 198
  • Vii. Thailand 211
  • Index 223
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