THE independence of American artists from academic domination and the validity of the individual artist's observation were thoroughly established after 1913. This would not have been possible without the militancy of Robert Henri, John Sloan, and other professional painters and illustrators of the earlier years of the century. From the Armory Show onward, however, for a decade or more, the influence of these realists was submerged by succeeding waves of post-Impressionist influence; and post-Impressionist influence gave its character to American painting and sculpture in the war years and the decade that followed.
Alfred Stieglitz, in his now famous "291" gallery on Fifth Avenue, continued until 1917 to provide a center where young American moderns could find a public, and where, perhaps, the most consistent demonstration was given of the aesthetic significance of the developing international art. Arthur Carles, the Philadelphian, Arthur Dove, Marsden Hartley, John Marin, Alfred Maurer, Max Weber, Abraham Walkowitz, Oscar Bluemner, Elie Nadelman, S. MacDonald Wright, and Georgia O'Keeffe were among the contributors to post-Impressionism in America whose work was brought to the attention of a growing public at "291." At the same time that he was showing their work, Stieglitz was exhibiting painting and sculpture by Brancusi, Picasso, Picabia, Braque, and Gino Severini, the Italian Futurist. The international aspects of the new art had been kept foremost here since the earliest days when a few Americans --Marin, Weber, Hartley among them--came and went between