Modern Art in America

By Martha Candler Cheney | Go to book overview

4. NEW DIRECTIONS AFTER 1913

THE independence of American artists from academic domination and the validity of the individual artist's observation were thoroughly established after 1913. This would not have been possible without the militancy of Robert Henri, John Sloan, and other professional painters and illustrators of the earlier years of the century. From the Armory Show onward, however, for a decade or more, the influence of these realists was submerged by succeeding waves of post-Impressionist influence; and post-Impressionist influence gave its character to American painting and sculpture in the war years and the decade that followed.

Alfred Stieglitz, in his now famous "291" gallery on Fifth Avenue, continued until 1917 to provide a center where young American moderns could find a public, and where, perhaps, the most consistent demonstration was given of the aesthetic significance of the developing international art. Arthur Carles, the Philadelphian, Arthur Dove, Marsden Hartley, John Marin, Alfred Maurer, Max Weber, Abraham Walkowitz, Oscar Bluemner, Elie Nadelman, S. MacDonald Wright, and Georgia O'Keeffe were among the contributors to post-Impressionism in America whose work was brought to the attention of a growing public at "291." At the same time that he was showing their work, Stieglitz was exhibiting painting and sculpture by Brancusi, Picasso, Picabia, Braque, and Gino Severini, the Italian Futurist. The international aspects of the new art had been kept foremost here since the earliest days when a few Americans --Marin, Weber, Hartley among them--came and went between

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Modern Art in America
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgments v
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations ix
  • Introduction 3
  • 1. the Beginning of American Modernism 6
  • 2. Backgrounds in European Art 20
  • 3. American Backgrounds 35
  • 4. New Directions After 1913 53
  • 5. the Spirit of Research and Significant Form 72
  • 6. Significant Vision 90
  • 8. the Painters Discover America 120
  • 9. Regionalism in a Broadening View 138
  • 10. Sculpture 151
  • 11. the Meaning of Modernism: A Summary 164
  • Definitions 177
  • Bibliography 181
  • Index 183
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