The Essentials of International Public Law and Organization

By Amos S. Hershey | Go to book overview

PART III
INTERCOURSE OF STATES

CHAPTER XVIII
RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF DIPLOMATIC AGENTS AND SOVEREIGNS

I. DIPLOMATIC AGENTS

256. The Head or Chief of State. -- The supreme organ and representative of a State in its diplomatic relations is the Head or Chief of the State. He may be either a monarch or a President1 and represents the State in its international relations with all other sovereigns; and, if traveling or resident in other States, is entitled to certain honors and marks of respect.2 His person, residence and suite are inviolable, and he is exempt from local jurisdiction in criminal and civil, as also in certain fiscal matters. It will be more convenient to consider these immunities after we have studied those of diplomatic agents.3

257. Minister of Foreign Affairs. -- The actual control or management of international relations is usually in the hands of the Secretary or Department of State for Foreign Affairs.4 He supervises the work of public ministers and

____________________
1
The monarch or President may be the nominal rather than the real Head of the State, as in the case of the King of England and the President of France. In Switzerland, which has a plural executive, the President of the Federal Council represents the State in its international relations.
2
Unless he chooses to remain incognito. On Heads of States and Titles and Precedence among Sovereigns and States, see especially: * 1 Oppenheim, §§ 341-lb /> 56; 1 P.-Fodéré, Cours, chs. 2-4; and I Satow, Bk. 1, chs. 4-5.
3
See infra, No. 281.
4
On the Organization of our Departments of State and the Conduct of Foreign Relations Generally, see: Corwin, The President's Control of Foreign Relations ( 1917); Foster, Century of Am. Diplomacy ( 1911), ch. 4; Hughes, in 16 A. J. ( 1922), 355 ff.; * Lay, Foreign Service of the U. S. ( 1925), especially chs. 2-3; Mathews, The Conduct of American Foreign Relations ( 1922), passim, particularly ch. 3; 1 P.-Fodéré, Cours, ch. 6; 1 Satow, particularly ch. 3; Schuyler, Am. Diplomacy ( 1886), 1-40; Van Dyne, Our Foreign Service ( 1909), ch. 1; Wright, Control of American Foreign Relations ( 1922), passim. For a History

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