AMICABLE MEANS OF SETTLEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL DIFFERENCES
There are at least six recognized amicable modes of settling international differences.
305. (I) Negotiation. -- The more usual or customary mode is by means of negotiation.1 Diplomacy is constantly at work avoiding friction, smoothing over difficulties, effecting compromises, and settling claims.2 In case of a serious difference, States are bound to try this mode of settlement before resorting to forcible means of coercion or redress -- a rule which appears to have been violated by Italy in 1911 in sending an ultimatum to Turkey without suitable prior negotiations. Negotiations may be carried on orally, by an exchange of notes, by written communications, or at a Congress or Conference.3____________________
See also the references on the nature of diplomacy, in Bibliography at the end of ch. I, supra, pp. 16-17. Among more recent works dealing with various phases of diplomacy are the following: Barthelémy, Démoctratie et politique étrangère ( 1917); Brown, Int. Realities ( 1917), 174-200; Kennedy, Old Diplomacy and New ( 1922); Lippmann, The Stakes of Diplomacy ( 1915); Mowrer, Our Foreign Affairs ( 1924); Ponsonby, Democracy and Diplomacy ( 1915); Poole, The Conduct of Foreign Relations ( 1924); Potter, Int. Organization, ( 1922), chs. 7-9; Reinsch, Secret Diplomacy; and Young, Diplomacy Old and New ( 1921).