The Essentials of International Public Law and Organization

By Amos S. Hershey | Go to book overview

CHAPTER XXIII
PREVENTION AND SOLUTION OF DIFFERENCES THROUGH INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION AND COöPERATION

320a. Historical Sketch of Plans for International Organization. -- The real pioneer in the history of disinterested plans for international organization was the Parisian monk Emeric Crucé whose remarkable book entitled Le Nouveau Cynée or The New Cyneas was published in 1623.1 Crucé suggested a permanent Congress or Assembly of ambassadors of the leading sovereigns and great republics of his time which should settle international differences by majority vote, and whose decisions the princes and sovereigns were sworn to enforce.2 Since Crucé's day many similar plans have been formulated.3

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1
It will be recalled that this was two years prior to the publication of Grotius' De jure belli ac pacis.

The really remarkable feature of Crucé's work is perhaps his insistence upon freedom of trade and communication as a basis for international organization. Crucé was not absolutely the pioneer in this field. He had been preceded by several others, notably by the French advocate Pierre Dubois in the early part of the 14th century. But there are good reasons for suspecting that Dubois was not a genuine internationalist and that, like Sully's Grand Design, his scheme had as its real aim the aggrandizement of the French monarchy.

2
The New Cyneas (trans. by Balch, 1909), 102-04 and 120-22. For a slight discussion of and references on Crucé, Sully Grand Design, and Dubois, see supra, pp. 67-68.
3
Prominent among these plans were the following: the Grand Design of Sully or Henry IV (ab. 1635); the Diet proposed by William Penn in his Essay (published in 1693); Abbé Saint-Pierre "Project of a Treaty for Perpetual Peace" ( 1712-17); Bentham Essay entitled "A Plan for an Universal and Perpetual Peace" (not published until 1843, but apparently written from 1786-89); Kant Essay on "Perpetual Peace" based on the principles of representative government and federation ( 1795); and Ladd Essay on "Congress of Nations" ( 1840).

For accounts of many and various Plans of International Organization, see: Butler, Studies in Statecraft ( 1920); Lange, Histoire de l'internationalism ( 1919); J. ter Meulen, Der Gedanke der Int. Organization ( 1917); Redslob, ( 1917); Das Problem des Völkerrechts ( 1917); Schücking, Die Organization der Welt ( 1908); and York, Leagues of Nations ( 1919). For good brief accounts, see Hicks, The New World Order ( 1920), ch. 5; and Morrow, The Society of Free States ( 1919), ch. 2.

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