PREVENTION AND SOLUTION OF DIFFERENCES THROUGH INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION AND COöPERATION
320a. Historical Sketch of Plans for International Organization. -- The real pioneer in the history of disinterested plans for international organization was the Parisian monk Emeric Crucé whose remarkable book entitled Le Nouveau Cynée or The New Cyneas was published in 1623.1 Crucé suggested a permanent Congress or Assembly of ambassadors of the leading sovereigns and great republics of his time which should settle international differences by majority vote, and whose decisions the princes and sovereigns were sworn to enforce.2 Since Crucé's day many similar plans have been formulated.3____________________
The really remarkable feature of Crucé's work is perhaps his insistence upon freedom of trade and communication as a basis for international organization. Crucé was not absolutely the pioneer in this field. He had been preceded by several others, notably by the French advocate Pierre Dubois in the early part of the 14th century. But there are good reasons for suspecting that Dubois was not a genuine internationalist and that, like Sully's Grand Design, his scheme had as its real aim the aggrandizement of the French monarchy.
For accounts of many and various Plans of International Organization, see: Butler, Studies in Statecraft ( 1920); Lange, Histoire de l'internationalism ( 1919); J. ter Meulen, Der Gedanke der Int. Organization ( 1917); Redslob, ( 1917); Das Problem des Völkerrechts ( 1917); Schücking, Die Organization der Welt ( 1908); and York, Leagues of Nations ( 1919). For good brief accounts, see Hicks, The New World Order ( 1920), ch. 5; and Morrow, The Society of Free States ( 1919), ch. 2.