NON-AMICABLE OR FORCIBLE MODES OF SETTLEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES
There are at least six non-amicable methods of settling international disputes. These may also be considered as modes of self-help.
321. (I) Retorsion. -- Retorsion is a species of retaliation in kind. It consists in treating in the same or similar manner a foreign State or its subjects chargeable with acts which, though perhaps not illegal,1 are discourteous, unfair, offensive or otherwise injurious. It is usually applied by way of retaliation for discriminatory legislation or administrative action, such as hostile tariffs, exclusion or unfair treatment of foreigners of a particular nationality, or denial of civil rights to aliens. Retorsion is essentially a remedy for political, racial, or economic grievances, and should be used as a means of securing fair and honorable treatment rather than from motives of punishment or vengeance.2
Reprisals were formerly classified as general and special, but special reprisals are obsolete. Down to the end of the eighteenth century States frequently issued licenses or "Letters of Marque and Reprisal" to such of their subjects as had been injured abroad, authorizing them to indemnify themselves upon the property of the subjects of the offending State. These were called special reprisals.
All reprisals are now, in a certain sense, general in character and, since the abolition of privateerinig, are executed by the State or government itself.