(but without the tabular data) is also in McPherson's Pulitzer Prize-winning Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era ( 1988). McPherson gives ample coverage to the economic and social bases underlying sectional hostilities. His account resembles Nevins's description of the "wedges of separation" in Ordeal of the Union, except McPherson uses modernization theory to contrast North and South. In McPherson's analysis, the North by 1860 fit all the criteria to qualify as a developed nation: its industry was capital rather than labor intensive; its agriculture, with a decreasing number of farmworkers due to technological advances, produced surpluses to feed urban populations; its society possessed a high level of mass education and literacy; and its cultural values encouraged a work ethic and, above all, a willingness to change. The South was the almost complete antithesis of the North: it had little industry, a labor-intensive, staple- producing agriculture, a free population far more illiterate than that of the North, and a value system that emphasized tradition and stability at the expense of change and progress. The South was static because it equated change with attacks upon slavery, the linchpin of its entire social system. "Arrested development" best described the region's society and economy. McPherson's summary of the basic social and economic differences between the regions will likely be the starting point in the near future for other studies of the outbreak of the Civil War.
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