The American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research

By Robin Higham; Steven E. Woodworth | Go to book overview

achieved the same organizational or operational sophistication that the Union attained. Joseph Jenkins Cornish III provides a view of aeronauts in gray in The Air Arm of the Confederacy ( 1963), including accounts of the legendary "silk dress" balloons that saw service in Virginia and South Carolina.


INTELLIGENCE AND COMMAND

Resourceful officers sometimes had access to multiple sources of information for use in making command decisions. Quite often, however, the intelligence reports they received were wrong or contradictory, or both. Even with multiple sources, a consistent problem remained: reaping the truth from a whirlwind of rumors, hearsay, and sketchy reports.

Some recent literature examines this process and shows how commanders analyzed and utilized the information at their disposal. Instead of dwelling on collection methods and sources, these works stress the impact of information on command decisions and, by extension, on battles and campaigns. Fishel's 1964 article constitutes the clarion call advocating this approach to Civil War intelligence studies, and his own work attests to the benefits.

Jay Luvaas and William B. Feis examine the impact of intelligence--or lack thereof--on important campaigns. Luvaas discusses "Lee at Gettysburg: A General without Intelligence" ( 1990) and "The Role of Intelligence in the Chancellorsville Campaign, April-May, 1863" ( 1990). Feis investigates how faulty intelligence led Ulysses S. Grant astray in "A Union Military Intelligence Failure: Jubal Early's Raid, June 12-July 14, 1864" ( 1990). The intelligence collaboration between Grant and General Philip H. Sheridan that aided in the Union victory over Confederate forces in the Shenandoah is covered in Feis "Neutralizing the Valley: The Role of Military Intelligence in the Defeat of Jubal Early's Army of the Valley, 1864-1865" ( 1993).

Although not an exhaustive list, the literature described in this chapter illustrates the scope of intelligence activities during the war and the diversity of the writings on the topic. A flood of new works on the Civil War inundates the reading public annually, but only a few droplets pertain to intelligence. This aspect of the war cries for more scholarly attention in order to reduce the influence of the myths and the anecdotal accounts that have thus far dominated Civil War intelligence history and to paint a more accurate picture of what Phil Sheridan referred to as a "great essential of success" in warfare: the acquisition and use of information to defeat the enemy.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Andrews J. Cutler. The North Reports the Civil War Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1955.

-----. The South Reports the Civil War. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970.

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The American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Foreword James M. Mcpherson ix
  • Preface xi
  • Introduction Steven E. Woodworth xiii
  • Part I - General Secondary Sources 1
  • 1 - Surveys and Textbooks 3
  • Bibliography 9
  • 2 - General Reference Works 11
  • Bibliography 20
  • 3 - Bibliographies 23
  • Bibliography 27
  • 4 - Periodical Indexes 39
  • Bibliography 44
  • 5 - Genealogical Sources 46
  • Summary 52
  • Summary 52
  • Part II - General Primary Sources 57
  • 6 - Memoirs, Diaries, and Letters 59
  • Letters 73
  • 7 - Published Papers 75
  • Bibliography 83
  • 8 - Unpublished Manuscript Collections 85
  • Bibliography 94
  • Part III - Illustrative Materials 97
  • 9 - Maps, Charts, and Atlases 99
  • Bibliography 108
  • 10 - Photographs and Drawings 111
  • Bibliography 117
  • Part IV - Causation--Events Leading to the War 119
  • 11 - Slavery, Race, and Culture 121
  • Bibliography 128
  • 12 - Constitutional and Political Factors 131
  • Bibliography 141
  • 13 - Economic Factors 144
  • Bibliography 151
  • Part V - International Relations 155
  • 14 - Union International Relations 157
  • Bibliography 169
  • 15 - Confederate International Relations 177
  • Bibliography 184
  • Part VI - Leaders 187
  • 16 - Abraham Lincoln 189
  • Bibliography 200
  • 17 - Jefferson Davis 203
  • Bibliography 209
  • 18 - Union Civilian Leaders 216
  • Bibliography 225
  • 19 - Confederate Civilian Leaders 234
  • Bibliography 240
  • Part VII - Strategy and Tactics: Operations, Campaigns, and Battles 245
  • 20 - Eastern Theater 247
  • Bibliography 260
  • 21 - Western Theater 270
  • Bibliography 283
  • 22 - Trans-Mississippi Theater 287
  • Bibliography 295
  • 23 - War on Inland Waters 298
  • Bibliography 306
  • 24 - War at Sea 313
  • Bibliography 326
  • Part VIII - Conduct of the War 333
  • 25 - Leadership--Union Army Officers 335
  • Bibliography 341
  • 26 - Leadership--Confederate Army Officers 346
  • Bibliography 352
  • 27 - Leadership--Union Naval Officers 357
  • Bibliography 364
  • 28 - Leadership--Confederate Naval Officers 368
  • Bibliography 373
  • 29 - Modern War/Total War 379
  • Bibliography 387
  • 30 - Ordnance 390
  • Biblliography 400
  • 31 - Supplies 405
  • Conclusion 413
  • 32 - Intelligence Activities 419
  • Bibliography 428
  • 33 - Medical Activities 433
  • Suggested Areas for Future Research 445
  • 34 - Enlisted Soldiers 454
  • Bibliography 464
  • 35 - Prison Camps and Prisoners of War 466
  • Bibliography 475
  • Part IX - The Home Front 479
  • 36 - Northern State and Local Politics 481
  • Bibliography 490
  • 37 - Southern State and Local Politics 494
  • Bibliography 500
  • 38 - Industry, Agriculture, and the Economy 505
  • Bibliography 512
  • 39 - Northern Social Conditions 515
  • 40 - Southern Social Conditions 530
  • Bibliography 537
  • Part X - Reconstruction and Beyond 545
  • 41 - Southern Occupation 547
  • Bibliography 556
  • 42 - Economics 561
  • Bibliography 571
  • 43 - Emancipation, Freedmen, and the Freedmen's Bureau 576
  • Bibliography 584
  • 44 - Veterans' Organizations and Memories of the War 586
  • Notes 596
  • Part XI - Popular Media 601
  • 45 - Novels and Other Fictional Accounts 603
  • Conclusion 610
  • 46 - Films and Television 613
  • Bibliography 619
  • 47 - Musical and Narrative Recordings 620
  • Bibliography 657
  • Appendix - Publishers and Dealers of Civil War Literature 659
  • Index 679
  • Bout the Contributors 753
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