of War at Fort Delaware" ( 1968), and W. Emerson Wilson, Fort Delaware ( 1957), an accurate, well-written pamphlet.
A search for unpublished dissertations found only four titles, a clear sign that research in this field continues to languish. Mary B. Allen, "Joseph Holt, Judge Advocate General (1862-1875): A Study in the Treatment of Political Prisoners by the United States Government during the Civil War" ( 1927), dealt with a major Union figure. Minor H. McLain "Prison Conditions in Fort Warren, Boston, during the Civil War" ( 1955) was briefly summarized in his 1962 article. E. Marvin Thomas studied "Prisoner of War Exchange in the Civil War" ( 1976). Leslie G. Hunter apparently did not complete a thesis, "Warden for the Union: General William Hoffman (1807-1884)," in progress in the late 1960s.
There are no biographies, not only of Hoffman, but of Union figures like Generals John A. Dix, Sullivan A. Meredith, and John Elmer Mulford; or of Confederates such as exchange agent Colonel Robert Ould. The commandants of various major prisons on both sides also lack studies.
The treatment of prisoners of war has engendered bitterness and controversy since nations ceased killing their captives and began holding them for exchange. Yet for half a century after Appomattox, Northerners and Southerners accused each other of doing precisely that while insisting that their own hands were clean. The scant attention paid to this subject in the past eighty years is an indictment of the historical profession, particularly those who profess to care about this greatest conflict. The neglect by academic scholars has been remedied in part by William Marvel, who represents a growing trend in Civil War studies. Important books aimed at a broad audience are increasingly being written by nonacademics like William A. Frassanito, Ernest B. Furgurson, Kent Gramm, John J. Hennessy, Alan T. Nolan, Harry W. Pfanz, John Michael Priest, Stephen W. Sears, Noah Andre Trudeau, and Warren Wilkinson, to name only a few. Perhaps we are seeing a return to the days of Bruce Catton, Shelby Foote, Allan Nevins, and Douglas Southall Freeman. Unlike those giants, one can hope that this new generation considers the forgotten men of the Civil War: its prisoners.
Beitzell Edwin W. Point Lookout Prison Camp for Confederates. Leonardtown, MD: St. Mary's County Historical Society, 1972.
Blakey Arch Fredric. General John H. Winder, C.S.A. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1990.