Many other noteworthy studies of the military in the South exist, but the dictates of space are inflexible. As this chapter comes to a close, a mention of the army's so-called withdrawal from the South is appropriate. The best summation of the Compromise of 1877 and the removal controversy is Vincent DeSantis , "Rutherford B. Hayes and the Removal of the Troops and the End of Reconstruction" ( 1982), which provides an excellent bibliographic- historiographic examination of army activity during the waning months of Reconstruction (in Region, Race and Reconstruction: Essays in Honor of C. Vann Woodward, 1982, 417-450). Also deserving of mention are several published primary works that are invaluable for their contemporary views on the military and Reconstruction. Among the most useful are John Williams DeForest, A Union Officer in the Reconstruction ( 1948), Sidney Andrews, The South since the War ( 1866), Edward King, The Great South ( 1875), Whitelaw Reid, After the War: A Tour of the Southern States, 1865-1866 ( 1866), and James T. Trowbridge , The South: A Tour of Its Battlefields and Ruined Cities ( 1866).
Unfortunately, these primary works cannot fill the gaps that scholars have left untended. The political role of the military in the South merits further investigation, as do the civil-military dilemmas faced by the army after Southern readmission. Even in areas where much work has been done, questions persist. Was the army composed of altruistic heroes or racist oppressors, for example? But I am optimistic, for the past few years have shown a marked increase in scholarly interest concerning the military during Reconstruction. More research, analysis, and imagination will better explain the military's significance during Reconstruction and eventually allow the army to move out from behind the shadow of its earlier achievements and accept credit for another task well done.
Abbott Martin. The Freedmen's Bureau in South Carolina, 1865-1872. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
Alderson William. "The Influence of Military Rule and the Freedmen's Bureau on Reconstruction in Virginia, 1865-1870." Ph.D. diss., Vanderbilt University, 1952.
Alexander Roberta Sue. North Carolina Faces the Freedmen: Race Relations during Presidential Reconstruction. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1985.
Anderson Eric, and Alfred A. Moss, eds. The Facts of Reconstruction: Essays in Honor of John Hope Franklin. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1991.
Andrews Sidney. The South since the War. 1866. Reprint New York: Arno Press and New York Times, 1969.
Ash Stephen V. When the Yankees Came: Conflict and Chaos in the Occupied South, 1861-1865. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
-----. Middle Tennessee Society Transformed, 1860-1870: War and Peace in the Upper South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1988.
-----. "Poor Whites in the Occupied South, 1861-1865." Journal of Southern History 55 ( February 1991): 39-62.